Summary

Quetiapine is subsidised by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. An extended-release formulation is also approved for use, but not subsidised, for treatment-resistant depression and generalised anxiety disorder.

There is increasing off-label prescribing of quetiapine for indications such as insomnia that have little evidence to support them. This prescribing is often for at-risk patients, such as people with personality or social vulnerabilities and those at risk of metabolic complications or cardiovascular events.

More evidence is required to support prescribing decisions regarding these off-label indications. In the meantime prescribers should be supported with alternatives to prescribing for these conditions, such as psychological therapies that have a better evidence base and safety record.

Introduction

Quetiapine is a short-acting antipsychotic that is available in immediate and extended-release formulations. It is registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and subsidised by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. The extended-release preparation is also registered for treatment-resistant depression and generalised anxiety disorder, but these indications are not subsidised by the PBS. In 2014, quetiapine was the 10th most expensive drug on the PBS.

There is a high level of evidence to support the approved indications of quetiapine, but it is being increasingly used off label.1,2 Often, clinicians are faced with difficult decisions about prescribing antipsychotics for off-label indications when dealing with distressed patients and inadequate resources for psychological treatments and other support. However, there is growing concern from within the medical community and regulatory bodies regarding the potential harm from prescribing antipsychotics off-label, particularly immediate-release quetiapine.

These concerns have been expressed in media reports of large increases in quetiapine prescribing to Australian soldiers returning from recent deployments, with a significant proportion of these personnel not accessing psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder.3 Internationally, there have been a number of high-profile court cases in the media concerning deaths related to quetiapine involving drug interactions or overdose.4

Off-label prescribing

Between 2000 and 2011 in Australia, there was around a twofold increase in the dispensing of antipsychotic drugs, with the greatest increase seen for quetiapine. Quetiapine’s use increased from 0.01 to 2.3 defined daily doses/1000 population/day.5 These changes cannot be accounted for by patients being switched from older to newer drugs or changes in the diagnosis of long-term mental illness over the last decade.5,6 Much of this escalating use may relate to prescribing antipsychotic drugs for indications that are not included in the approved product information.

This off-label prescribing is commonplace in psychiatry 7 and is sometimes justifiable as some off-label indications are supported by national consensus guidelines and medicines information services. For instance, in addition to its TGA-approved indications, quetiapine may have a role in anorexia nervosa. Regulatory decisions often lag behind the generation of evidence from clinical trials.

A brief history of quetiapine

Quetiapine was first registered in 1997 and by 2010 it was the fifth biggest selling pharmaceutical in the USA, with annual sales of US$6.8 billion.8 However, in 2010 the manufacturer of quetiapine agreed to pay US$520 million following government allegations of promoting off-label prescribing. This included promoting the drug to non-psychiatrists for indications such as anger management, dementia and sleeplessness. There were also allegations of remunerating doctors for articles that had been ‘ghostwritten’ by other people to promote off-label uses.9

A patent extension was granted for the extended-release formulation in 2010 until 2017 for very similar indications to the immediate-release formulation which came off patent in 2012. There are now around 17 generic forms of quetiapine available in Australia.

Who is prescribing quetiapine for what?

Concerns about the off-label use of antipsychotics prompted an evaluation by the Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee in 2013.10 Off-label use was most evident for the 25 mg strength of quetiapine. The usual therapeutic dose range for the approved indications is 400–800 mg/day. The 25 mg dose has no uses that are evidence based other than for dose titration in older patients. However, the report found that 23.3% of all patients taking quetiapine were taking the 25 mg strength alone. Most (66%) initial prescriptions for quetiapine were written by GPs, suggesting that the indications were not schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. The Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee recommended liaison with TGA and drug companies to reduce the number of 25 mg tablets in a pack and to reduce the number of repeats from five to zero. Improved advice and support for prescribers was also suggested, leading to an NPS MedicineWise publication on the role of low-dose quetiapine.11

Limited-evidence prescribing practices

There is little evidence to support many of the off-label uses of quetiapine.12 Indications with particularly poor evidence include anxiety, insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, and substance misuse.13 For example, a recent literature review of studies using quetiapine to treat insomnia in the absence of comorbid conditions found only two placebo-controlled clinical trials of 31 patients in total. The review concluded that the absence of efficacy and safety data precludes the use of quetiapine for insomnia.14 Prescribing for indications that are not supported by evidence has safety, ethical and financial implications.

Little is known about the reasons for off-label prescribing, but a historical perspective of sedative and hypnotic prescribing trends shows a move from barbiturates in the 1920s to the 1950s15 and then to benzodiazepines from the 1960s,16 mainly because of safety concerns. More recently there have been increasing concerns about the harms of benzodiazepines, in particular alprazolam17 which was rescheduled from Schedule 4 to 8 in 2014.18 When prescribers are confronted with requests for prescriptions to treat anxiety and insomnia they are aware of the hazards of benzodiazepines, but may not have access to, or skills in, psychological therapies.19,20 Quetiapine has sedative effects, so it is possible that quetiapine is being prescribed instead of benzodiazepines due to perceptions regarding safety and efficacy.

Future directions

There is a pressing need to identify the reasons for the escalating use of quetiapine. Conditions such as insomnia and anxiety have been identified as common indications that lack robust evidence. Gathering evidence is imperative to support or refute the ongoing use of quetiapine for these indications. In the meantime, it is important to support doctors with alternatives to prescribing – for instance with resources to improve assessment and management of these conditions and manage them with psychological therapies that have a greater evidence base.

Conclusion

Quetiapine has proven safety and efficacy when used for its approved indications. However, there are concerning increases in the rates of off-label prescribing for indications with limited evidence. Adverse outcomes are most likely to occur in already vulnerable populations such as older people, those with mental health problems and substance misusers. Prescribers should therefore be cautious when considering a prescription for quetiapine for an off-label indication.

Conflict of interest: none declared

References

  1. Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Schmid F, Hunger H, Schwarz S, Srisurapanont M. Quetiapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;0.
  2. Chiesa A, Chierzi F, De Ronchi D, Serretti A. Quetiapine for bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2012;27:76-90.
  3. Vincent M. Concern over anti-psychotic drug given to soldiers. ABC News. 2013 Apr 25. .
  4. Perrone M. Deaths raise questions on drug given to sleepless vets. NBC News. 2010 Aug 30.
  5. Stephenson CP, Karanges E, McGregor IS. Trends in the utilisation of psychotropic medications in Australia from 2000 to 2011. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2013;47:74-87.
  6. Australian Bureau of Statistics. National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2007-2008. Canberra: ABS; 2009. .
  7. Hodgson R, Belgamwar R. Off-label prescribing by psychiatrists. Psychiatr Bull 2006;30:55-7.
  8. IMS Health. Top 20 global therapeutic classes, 2010, total audited markets. www.imshealth.com [cited 2015 May 1]
  9. Office of Public Affairs. Pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca to pay $520 million for off-label drug marketing [media release]. Washington DC: United States Department of Justice; 2010 Apr 27.
  10. Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee. DUSC review on the utilisation of antipsychotics – August 2013. Public Summary Document. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health; 2013.
  11. NPS MedicineWise. Low-dose quetiapine: place in therapy? Health News and Evidence. 2014 Apr.
  12. Walton SM, Schumock GT, Lee KV, Alexander GC, Meltzer D, Stafford RS. Prioritizing future research on off-label prescribing: results of a quantitative evaluation. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28:1443-52.
  13. Carney AC. Efficacy of quetiapine off-label uses: data synthesis. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2013;51:11-8.
  14. Anderson SL, Vande Griend JP. Quetiapine for insomnia: A review of the literature. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2014;71:394-402.
  15. López-Muñoz F, Ucha-Udabe R, Alamo C. The history of barbiturates a century after their clinical introduction. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2005;1:329-43.
  16. López-Muñoz F, Alamo C, García-García P. The discovery of chlordiazepoxide and the clinical introduction of benzodiazepines: half a century of anxiolytic drugs. J Anxiety Disord 2011;25:554-62.
  17. Rintoul AC, Dobbin MD, Nielsen S, Degenhardt L, Drummer OH. Recent increase in detection of alprazolam in Victorian heroin-related deaths. Med J Aust 2013;198:206-9.
  18. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Interim decisions on proposal referred to an advisory committee: ACMS March 2013. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health; 2013. www.tga.gov.au/book/interim-decisions-proposal-referred-advisory committee-acms-march-2013 [cited 2015 May 5]
  19. Edinger JD, Wohlgemuth WK, Radtke RA, Marsh GR, Quillian RE. Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of chronic primary insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;285:1856-64.
  20. Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ, Reilly-Spong M, Wall M, Winbush NY, Patterson R. Mindfulness-based stress reduction versus pharmacotherapy for chronic primary insomnia: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Explore (NY) 2011;7:76-87.
  21. Buckley N, Whyte IM, Dawson AH, Isbister GK. 26 years of self-poisoning in Newcastle, 1987-2012. Med J Aust 2015;.
  22. Heilbronn C, Lloyd B, McElwee P, Eade A, Lubman DI. Trends in quetiapine use and non-fatal quetiapine-related ambulance attendances. Drug Alcohol Rev 2013;32:405-11.
  23. Pilgrim JL, Drummer OH. The toxicology and comorbidities of fatal cases involving quetiapine. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2013;9:170-6.
  24. Newcomer JW. Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review. CNS Drugs 2005;19:1-93.
  25. Brecher M, Leong RW, Stening G, Osterling-Koskinen L, Jones AM. Quetiapine and long-term weight change: a comprehensive data review of patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:597-603.
  26. Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Hall K, Stein CM. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. N Engl J Med 2009;360:225-35.
  27. Tiller J, Ames D, Brodaty H, Byrne G, Chawla S, Halliday G. Antipsychotic use in the elderly: what doctors say they do, and what they do. Australas J Ageing 2008;27:134-42.
  28. Hilmer SN, Gnjidic D. Rethinking psychotropics in nursing homes. Med J Aust 2013;198:77.
  29. McKean A, Monasterio E. Off-label use of atypical antipsychotics: cause for concern? CNS Drugs 2012;26:383-90.
  30. Vigen CL, Mack WJ, Keefe RS, Sano M, Sultzer DL, Stroup TS. Cognitive effects of atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: outcomes from CATIE-AD. Am J Psychiatry 2011;168:831-9.
  31. Dorsey ER, Rabbani A, Gallagher SA, Conti RM, Alexander GC. Impact of FDA black box advisory on antipsychotic medication use. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:96-103.
  32. Kumsar NA, Erol A. Olanzapine abuse. Subst Abus 2013;34:73-4.
  33. Kirwan A, Reddel S, Dietze P. Licit and illicit quetiapine use among IDRS participants. Drug Trends Bulletin. 2012 July.
  34. Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Is seroquel developing an illicit reputation for misuse/abuse? Psychiatry (Edgmont) 2010;7:13-6.
  35. Reeves RR, Brister JC. Additional evidence of the abuse potential of quetiapine. South Med J 2007;100:834-6.