10 mg and 20 mg tablets
Approved indication: major depression
Australian Medicines Handbook section 18.1
Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is a racemic compound, but most of its activity is thought to reside in the S-isomer (escitalopram).
Starting doses of escitalopram are half those of citalopram. The isomers of citalopram have different pharmacokinetics, with escitalopram being metabolised by pathways which include cytochrome P450 2C19, 3A4 and 2D6. The metabolites are mainly excreted in the urine.
Escitalopram has been compared with placebo and citalopram, but not all of these studies have been published in full. One trial, involving 491 patients, found that escitalopram was more effective than placebo, but not significantly more effective than citalopram after eight weeks of treatment. 1Another study lasting six months also found that 10 mg escitalopram was at least as efficacious as 20 mg of citalopram.
The adverse effects of escitalopram resemble those of citalopram and other SSRIs. In the comparative trial 4.2% of the patients taking 10 mg escitalopram discontinued treatment because of adverse effects. 1These effects included nausea, diarrhoea, insomnia, dry mouth and ejaculation disorders.
There is insufficient published evidence to say that escitalopram should replace citalopram. The Health Research Group in the USA said that 'the primary purpose for developing escitalopram appears to be nothing more than a strategy to protect sales as citalopram nears the end of its patent protection'. 2
- Burke WJ, Gergel I, Bose A. Fixed-dose trial of the single isomer SSRI escitalopram in depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63:331-6.
- Health Research Group. Do not use until October 2005. Escitalopram (Lexapro) - the sixth selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. Worst Pills, Best Pills 2003;9:5-7.