Consumer medicine information

APO-Piroxicam Capsules

Piroxicam

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

APO-Piroxicam

Active ingredient

Piroxicam

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using APO-Piroxicam Capsules.

What is in this leaflet

Read this leaflet carefully before taking your medicine.

This leaflet answers some common questions about piroxicam. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist:

  • if there is anything you do not understand in this leaflet,
  • if you are worried about taking your medicine, or
  • to obtain the most up-to-date information.

You can also download the most up to date leaflet from www.apotex.com.au.

All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you using this medicine against the benefits they expect it will have for you.

Pharmaceutical companies cannot give you medical advice or an individual diagnosis.

Keep this leaflet with your medicine. You may want to read it again.

What this medicine is used for

The name of your medicine is APO-Piroxicam Capsules. It contains the active ingredient, piroxicam.

It is used to treat symptoms such as swelling, stiffness and joint pain caused by:

  • rheumatoid arthritis (when the tissue around a joint becomes thickened and inflamed leading to a build-up of fluid on the joint)
  • osteoarthritis (when the cartilage between two bones becomes damaged)
  • ankylosing spondylitis (a type of arthritis affecting the spine).

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you. Your doctor may have prescribed this medicine for another reason.

This medicine is available only with a doctor's prescription.

How it works

Piroxicam belongs to a group of medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These medicines work by relieving pain and inflammation (heat, throbbing, swelling and redness).

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you. Your doctor may have prescribed this medicine for another reason.

There is no evidence that this medicine is addictive.

Use in children

Do not give this medicine to children under 12 years of age. The safety and effectiveness of this medicine in this age group have not been established.

Before you take this medicine

When you must not take it

Do not take this medicine if:

  • You have any of the following problems affecting your digestive system:
    - You have or have had a peptic ulcer (i.e. stomach or duodenal ulcer).
    - You are vomiting blood, or material that looks like coffee grounds.
    - You are bleeding from the rectum (back passage), have black, sticky bowel motions (stools).
    - You have or have had inflammation of the lining of the stomach or bowel (e.g. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis).
  • You have or have had any of the following:
    - heart (coronary artery) bypass surgery
    - serious kidney or liver problems
    - severe heart failure.
  • You are currently taking aspirin or any other NSAID medicine.
  • You are hypersensitive to, or have had an allergic reaction to, piroxicam, aspirin, other NSAIDs or any of the ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet.
    Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include:
    - Cough
    - shortness of breath
    - wheezing or difficulty breathing
    - swelling of the face, lips, tongue, throat or other parts of the body
    - rash, itching or hives on the skin
    - fainting
    - hay fever-like symptoms.
    Examples of serious allergic reactions affecting the skin include erythema multiforme (red patches on the arms, legs and face with blisters on the lips and lining of the mouth), Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (rash with blisters, and blisters covering large areas of the body; peeling or burning of the skin).
    It is very important that you tell your doctor if you have had these or any type of skin reaction before.
    You must not take piroxicam if you have had an allergic reaction to piroxicam, aspirin or other NSAID medicines.
    If you think you are having an allergic reaction to piroxicam, stop taking this medicine and contact your doctor immediately or go to the Accident and Emergency department at your nearest hospital.

Do not take this medicine after the expiry date (EXP) printed on the pack or is the packaging is torn or shows signs of tampering. If it has expired or damaged, return it to your pharmacist for disposal.

Before you start to take it

Before you start taking this medicine, tell your doctor if:

  1. You have allergies, hypersensitivity or intolerance to:
  • any other medicines including aspirin or other NSAID medicines
  • any other substances, such as foods, preservatives or dyes
  • lactose - this medicine contains lactose.
  1. You have or have had any medical conditions, especially the following:
  • heartburn, indigestion, stomach ulcer or other stomach problems
  • asthma
  • kidney or liver problems
  • high blood pressure or heart problems
  • swelling of the feet or ankles (oedema)
  • a tendency to bleed
  • an existing infection.
Piroxicam may hide some signs of infection (such as pain, fever, swelling or redness). This may lead you to mistakenly believe that you are better or that the infection is not serious.
  1. You are currently pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Do not take this medicine whilst pregnant until you and your doctor have discussed the risks and benefits involved.
Like most NSAID medicines, piroxicam is not recommended for use during pregnancy. It may affect your developing baby if you take it while you are pregnant, especially during the last three months of pregnancy.
  1. You are currently breastfeeding or you plan to breastfeed. Do not take this medicine whilst breastfeeding until you and your doctor have discussed the risks and benefits involved.
The active ingredient in this medicine passes into breast milk and may affect your baby.
  1. You are planning to have surgery.
  2. You are currently receiving or are planning to receive dental treatment.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any other medicines, including any that you get without a prescription from your pharmacy, vitamins and supplements from the supermarket or health food shop.

Some medicines may interact with piroxicam. These include:

  • aspirin, salicylates or any other anti-inflammatory agents used to relieve pain, swelling and other symptoms of inflammation
  • diuretics (also called fluid or water tablets)
  • medicines used to treat high blood pressure or heart problems. These include digoxin, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers
  • warfarin, aspirin or other medicines used to stop blood clots
  • medicines used to treat diabetes called sulphonylureas
  • sulphonamide antibiotics
  • methotrexate (used to treat arthritis, psoriasis and some cancers)
  • medicines to treat depression such as lithium and SSRIs
  • steroids (medicines used to treat allergies and hormone imbalances)
  • cyclosporin or tacrolimus (given to help prevent rejection of transplanted organs)
  • phenytoin (used to treat epilepsy or convulsions) and other medicines that effect, or is affected by, a liver enzyme called CYP 2C9.

If you are taking any of these medicines, you may need a different dose or you may need to take different medicines.

Other medicines not listed above may also interact with piroxicam.

Your doctor or pharmacist will have more information on medicines to be careful with or avoid while taking this medicine.

How to take this medicine

Follow carefully all directions given to you by your doctor or pharmacist. Their instructions may be different to the information in this leaflet.

How much to take

Your doctor or pharmacist will tell you how much of this medicine you should take. This will depend on your condition and whether you are taking any other medicines.

Normally you would start with 10 mg. After that the usual dose is 10 to 20 mg taken once each day.

Do not stop taking your medicine or change your dosage without first checking with your doctor.

How to take it

Swallow the capsules whole, with a glass of water.

When to take it

Take this medicine with or immediately after food to reduce the chance of a stomach upset. Take this medicine at about the same time each day. Taking it at the same time each day will have the best effect and will also help you remember when to take it.

How long to take it for

Keep taking your medicine for as long as your doctor tells you. This is normally for a few weeks and then your doctor will review your treatment.

This medicine will not cure your condition but it should help to control pain, swelling and stiffness.

If you forget to take it

If it is almost time to take your next dose, skip the missed dose and take your next dose at the usual time. Otherwise, take it as soon as you remember and then go back to taking your medicine as you would normally.

Do not take a double dose to make up for missed doses. This may increase the chance of unwanted side effects.

If you have trouble remembering to take your medicine, ask your pharmacist for some hints.

If you take too much (overdose)

If you think that you or anyone else may have taken too much of this medicine, immediately telephone your doctor or the Poisons Information Centre (Tel: 13 11 26 in Australia) for advice. Alternatively go to the Accident and Emergency Department at your nearest hospital.

Do this even if there are no signs of discomfort or poisoning. You may need urgent medical attention. If you take too much piroxicam, you may feel sick, dizzy, drowsy or confused, or have stomach pain, vomiting or headache or faint or become unconscious and/or have problems breathing.

While you are taking this medicine

Things you must do

Be alert for any signs of allergy or hypersensitivity, or signs that this medicine may be seriously affecting your stomach or intestine or cardiovascular system. In particular, watch for skin rashes, passing or vomiting blood, feeling faint or having chest pain or tightness (see 'Possible side effects' for full details). Report anything new or unusual to your doctor immediately.

Tell your doctor that you are taking this medicine if:

  • you are about to be started on any new medicine
  • you become pregnant or plan to breastfeed
  • you are about to have any blood tests
  • you are going to have surgery, including dental surgery.
    Piroxicam can slow down blood clotting so it is important that your doctor, dentist or surgeon knows that you are taking it.
  • you get an infection.
    Piroxicam may hide some of the signs of an infection and may make you think, mistakenly, that you are better or that it is not serious. Signs of an infection may include fever, pain, swelling and redness.

Your doctor may occasionally do tests to make sure the medicine is working and to prevent side effects by checking your potassium levels and seeing how your kidneys are working. Go to your doctor regularly for a check-up.

Tell any other doctors, dentists, and pharmacists who are treating you that you are taking this medicine.

Things you must not do

Do not:

  • give this medicine to anyone else, even if their symptoms seem similar to yours
  • take your medicine to treat any other condition unless your doctor or pharmacist tells you to
  • stop taking your medicine, or change the dosage, without first checking with your doctor.

Things to be careful of

Be careful while driving or operating machinery until you know how this medicine affects you.

As with other NSAID medicines, piroxicam may cause dizziness, drowsiness and blurred vision in some people.

If this occurs, do not drive, operate machinery or do anything else that could be dangerous.

Be careful of ingesting alcohol whilst taking piroxicam. As with other NSAID medicines ingesting alcohol may increase your risk of developing stomach problems.

Side effects

Tell your doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible if you do not feel well while you are taking piroxicam or if you have any questions or concerns.

If you are over 70 years of age, you may have a higher chance of getting side effects.

Do not be alarmed by the following lists of side effects. You may not experience any of them. All medicines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious but most of the time they are not.

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you notice any of the following and they worry you:

  • stomach upsets including nausea (feeling sick), vomiting, heartburn, indigestion and cramps
  • constipation, diarrhoea, stomach pain and wind
  • loss of appetite, weight loss or weight gain
  • dizziness or light-headedness
  • feeling thirsty
  • chills, sweating or flushing
  • sleepiness and drowsiness
  • headache
  • buzzing or ringing in the ears
  • hair loss or thinning
  • loose nails
  • change in mood (eg. anxiety, nervousness or depression, or change in personality)
  • sore mouth or tongue
  • nose bleeds
  • memory loss
  • heavy periods
  • numbness or tingling in hands or feet
  • mild skin rash.

Tell your doctor as soon as possible if you notice any of the following.

These may be serious side effects. You may need medical attention:

  • severe pain or tenderness in the stomach, often with nausea and vomiting
  • eye problems such as blurred vision, sore red eyes or itching
  • severe dizziness or a spinning sensation
  • high or low blood sugar
  • fast or irregular heart beat
  • difficulty hearing or deafness
  • unusual bruising or bleeding, reddish or purple blotches under the skin
  • signs of frequent infections such as fever, chills, sore throat or mouth ulcers
  • signs of anaemia such as tiredness, being short of breath and looking pale
  • a change in the colour of the urine, blood in the urine
  • a change in the amount of urine passed, burning feeling when passing urine
  • unusual weight gain, swelling of the ankles or legs
  • the symptoms of sunburn including redness, itching, swelling, blistering which may occur more quickly than normal
  • high blood pressure
  • hallucinations (seeing, feeling or hearing things that are not there)
  • shaking or feeling uncoordinated.

If you experience any of the following, stop taking your medicine and contact your doctor immediately or go to the Accident and Emergency department at your nearest hospital.

These are very serious side effects and are usually very rare. You may need urgent medical attention or hospitalisation.

  • yellowing of the eyes or the skin (jaundice)
  • vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds
  • bleeding from your back passage (rectum), black sticky stools or bloody diarrhoea
  • seizures or fits
  • pain or tightness in the chest, possibly also with breathlessness
  • meningitis (stiff neck, light sensitivity, drowsiness / confusion, unconsciousness and/or convulsions).

Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some people.

Storage and disposal

Storage

Keep your medicine in its original packaging until it is time to take it. If you take your medicine out of its original packaging it may not keep well.

Keep your medicine in a cool dry place where the temperature will stay below 25°C. Do not store your medicine, or any other medicine, in the bathroom or near a sink. Do not leave it on a window sill or in the car. Heat and dampness can destroy some medicines.

Keep this medicine where children cannot reach it. A locked cupboard at least one-and-a-half metres above the ground is a good place to store medicines.

Disposal

If your doctor or pharmacist tells you to stop taking this medicine or it has passed its expiry date, your pharmacist can dispose of the remaining medicine safely.

Product description

What APO-Piroxicam capsules look like

APO-Piroxicam 10 mg capsules

Deep powder blue opaque body, maroon opaque cap, hard gelatin capsule. Imprinted APO 10. Off-white powder fill.

Blister packs of 50 capsules.

APO-Piroxicam 20 mg capsules

Maroon cap/maroon body, marked "APO 20".

Blister packs of 25 capsules.

Ingredients

Each capsule contains 10 mg or 20 mg of piroxicam as the active ingredient.

It also contains the following inactive ingredients:

  • lactose monohydrate
  • microcrystalline cellulose
  • maize starch
  • stearic acid
  • purified talc
  • gelatin (contains sulfites)
  • titanium dioxideallura red AC (CI 16035)
  • iron oxide red (CI 77491) brilliant blue FCF (CI 42090)
  • Opacode S-1-7085 white.

This medicine is gluten-free, sucrose-free, tartrazine-free and free of other azo dyes.

Australian Registration Numbers

APO-Piroxicam 10mg capsules

Blister packs

AUST R 75039.

APO-Piroxicam 20mg capsules

Blister packs

AUST R 75043.

Sponsor

Apotex Pty Ltd
16 Giffnock Avenue
Macquarie Park NSW 2113

This leaflet was last updated in: July 2021.

Published by MIMS August 2021

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

APO-Piroxicam

Active ingredient

Piroxicam

Schedule

S4

 

1 Name of Medicine

Piroxicam.

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Each capsule contains piroxicam 10 mg or 20 mg.

Excipients with known effect.

Contains sugars (as lactose monohydrate), and gelatin.
For the full list of excipients see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

APO-Piroxicam 10 mg capsules.

Deep powder blue opaque body, maroon opaque cap, hard gelatin capsule. Imprinted APO 10. Off-white powder fill.

APO-Piroxicam 20 mg capsules.

Maroon body and cap, marked "APO 20".

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Piroxicam is indicated for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

APO-Piroxicam 10 mg and 20 mg capsules are intended for oral administration.

Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

After assessing the risk versus benefit for each patient, use the minimum effective dose for the shortest duration possible. The duration of treatment should preferably be limited to 14 days. If continued treatment is considered necessary, this should be accompanied by evaluation at 14 days and subsequent frequent review with regards to efficacy, risk factors and ongoing need for treatment.
The dose should be adjusted to each individual patient's response and toleration. In studies to date, the optimal response generally has been achieved at a daily dose of 20 mg, given as a single dose.
The recommended starting dose is 10 mg. Administration of doses higher than 20 mg daily carries an increased risk of adverse effects and is not recommended.

4.3 Contraindications

Piroxicam should not be administered to patients with active peptic ulcerations, active gastrointestinal ulceration ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding or perforations, active inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, or a recent history of these conditions.
Piroxicam should not be administered in patients who have previously shown a hypersensitivity to the drug or in whom a hypersensitive reaction(s) (e.g. asthma, nasal polyps, angioedema or urticaria) has been precipitated by aspirin or other NSAIDs, since cross sensitivity exists.
Piroxicam should not be administered to patients with a history of previous severe allergic drug reactions of any type, especially cutaneous reactions such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, or those who have exhibited a previous skin reaction (regardless of severity) to piroxicam.
Piroxicam is contraindicated in the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Piroxicam is contraindicated in patients with severe renal and hepatic failure.
Piroxicam is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Piroxicam is contraindicated in patients with severe heart failure.
Piroxicam should not be administered concomitantly with other NSAIDs, including COX-2 selective NSAIDs and aspirin at analgesic doses.

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the minimum effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms. The clinical benefit and tolerability should be re-evaluated periodically and treatment should be immediately discontinued at the first appearance of cutaneous reactions or relevant gastrointestinal events. Evidence from observational studies suggests that piroxicam may be associated with a high risk of serious gastrointestinal toxicity, relative to other NSAIDs. Piroxicam should only be commenced after careful weighing of the risks and benefits in each individual patient.

Cardiovascular effects.

Cardiovascular thrombotic events.

NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with dose or duration of use. The relative increase of this risk appears to be similar in those with or without known CV disease or CV risk factors. However, patients with CV disease, history of atherosclerotic CV disease or CV risk factors may be at greater risk in terms of absolute incidence, due to their increased rate at baseline. To minimise the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with piroxicam, especially those with CV risk factors, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV toxicity and the steps to take if they occur (see Section 4.3 Contraindications).
There is no consistent evidence that the concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV events associated with NSAID use.

Hypertension.

NSAIDs, including piroxicam, may lead to the onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, while patients taking antihypertensives with NSAIDs may have an impaired anti-hypertensive response. For example, the anti-hypertensive effect of thiazide diuretics and beta-blocking agents is antagonised by NSAIDs.
NSAIDs, including piroxicam, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure should be monitored closely during initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Heart failure.

Fluid retention and oedema (mainly ankle oedema) has been reported in patients taking NSAIDS, including piroxicam. Therefore, piroxicam should be used with caution in patients with compromised cardiac function and other conditions predisposing to or worsened by, fluid retention. Patients with pre-existing congestive heart failure or hypertension should be closely monitored.

Risk of GI ulceration, bleeding and perforation with NSAID therapy.

All NSAIDs, including piroxicam, can cause serious, potentially fatal gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine.
GI toxicity can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated chronically with NSAID therapy. The frequency of such events may increase with dose or duration of use. Although minor upper GI problems, such as dyspepsia, are common, usually developing early in therapy, physicians should remain alert for ulceration and bleeding in patients treated chronically with NSAIDs even in the absence of previous GI tract symptoms. Administration of doses of greater than 20 mg per day carries an increased risk of GI side effects. Evidence from observational studies suggests that piroxicam may be associated with a high risk of serious GI toxicity, relative to other NSAIDs (see Section 4.3 Contraindications).
Patients most at risk of developing these types of GI complications with NSAIDS are the elderly, patients with CV disease, patients using concomitant aspirin, corticosteroids and SSRIs, patients ingesting alcohol, patients with a history of GI disease (such as ulcerations, GI bleeding or inflammatory conditions); and patients with a history of smoking or alcoholism. Piroxicam should either not be prescribed, or be prescribed with caution in these patients (see Section 4.3 Contraindications).
Patients over 70 years of age are associated with a high risk of complications. The administration to patients older than 80 years should be avoided. In patients observed in clinical trials of several months to two years duration, symptomatic, upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding or perforation appear to occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. Patients taking concomitant oral corticosteroids SSRIs or anti-platelet agents such as low-dose aspirin are at increased risk of serious GI complications.
Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and/or bleeding during piroxicam treatment. Patients should be asked to report any new or unusual abdominal symptom during treatment. If a GI complication is suspected during treatment, piroxicam should be discontinued immediately and additional clinical evaluation and treatment should be considered.

Asthma.

Piroxicam should be used with caution in patients with asthma because bronchial smooth muscle spasm may be aggravated by prostaglandin inhibition.

Haemorrhagic tendencies.

Piroxicam, like other NSAIDs, decrease platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time. This effect should be borne in mind when bleeding times are determined, in patients undergoing surgery and in patients with haemorrhagic disorders. Dosage requirements of coumarin anticoagulants and other drugs that are highly protein bound should be closely and very regularly monitored when these are administered concomitantly with piroxicam. Such drugs include warfarin, hydantoins, sulphonamides and sulfonylureas. Bleeding has been reported rarely when piroxicam as well as other NSAIDs have been administered to patients on coumarin type anticoagulants (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions).

Renal effects.

As with other NSAIDs, long-term administration of piroxicam to animals has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other pathology. In rare cases, NSAIDs may cause interstitial nephritis, glomerulitis, haematuria, proteinuria, papillary necrosis and occasionally nephrotic syndrome.
NSAIDs inhibit the synthesis of renal prostaglandin, which plays a supportive role in the maintenance of renal perfusion in patients whose renal blood flow and blood volume are decreased. In these patients administration of an NSAID may precipitate overt renal decompensation, which is typically followed by recovery to the pretreatment state on discontinuation of the NSAID. Patients at greatest risk of this complication include those with impaired hepatic or renal function (e.g. liver cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, overt renal disease), with heart failure, taking diuretics or the elderly. Such patients should be carefully monitored while receiving NSAID therapy.
Blood urea nitrogen elevation has been observed in some patients. These elevations are not progressive over the course of treatment with piroxicam, a plateau being reached which returns to or towards baseline levels if treatment is stopped. The rise in blood urea nitrogen as a rule, is not associated with elevations in serum creatinine.

Concomitant use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists and anti-inflammatory drugs and thiazide diuretics.

The use of an ACE inhibiting drug (ACE-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonist), and an anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID or COX-2 inhibitor) and a thiazide diuretic at the same time increases the risk of renal impairment. This includes use in fixed-combination products containing more than one class of drug. Concomitant use of all three classes of these medications should be accompanied by increased monitoring of serum creatinine, particularly at the institution of the treatment. The concomitant use of drugs from these three classes should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients or those with pre-existing renal impairment.

Use in renal impairment.

As with other NSAIDs, it is recommended that piroxicam be given under close supervision in patients with a history of impaired renal function and periodic renal function tests carried out.
Caution should be used when initiating treatment with piroxicam in patients with severe dehydration. Caution is also recommended in patients with kidney disease (see Section 4.3 Contraindications). Lower doses should be considered in patients with impaired renal function and they should be carefully monitored.

Use with oral anticoagulants.

The concomitant use of NSAIDs, including piroxicam, with oral anticoagulants increases the risk of GI and non-GI bleeding and should be given with caution. Oral anticoagulants include warfarin/coumarin-type anticoagulants and novel oral anticoagulants (e.g. apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban). Anticoagulation/INR should be monitored in patients taking a warfarin/coumarin-type anticoagulant (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions).

Masking of signs of infection.

As with other NSAIDs, the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects of piroxicam may mask the signs of infection (pain, fever, etc.).

Ophthalmological monitoring.

Adverse ophthalmological effects have been observed with NSAIDs; accordingly, patients who develop visual disturbances during treatment with piroxicam should have an ophthalmological examination.

Skin reactions.

NSAIDs may very rarely cause serious cutaneous adverse events such as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome), exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), which can be fatal and occur without warning. These serious adverse events are idiosyncratic and are independent of dose or duration of use. Evidence from observational studies suggests that piroxicam may be associated with a higher risk of severe cutaneous adverse reactions than other non-oxicam NSAIDs. Patients appear to be at highest risk of these reactions early in the course of therapy, the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Piroxicam should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions and to consult their doctor at the first appearance of a skin rash, mucosal lesion or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Hepatic effects.

As with other NSAIDs, borderline elevations of liver function tests may occur in up to 15% of patients. A patient with symptoms or signs suggesting impaired hepatic function or in whom an abnormal liver function test has been reported should be evaluated for evidence of development of some severe hepatic dysfunction. These abnormalities may progress, remain essentially unchanged or be transient with continued therapy. The ALT (SGPT) is probably the most sensitive indicator of liver dysfunction. Meaningful (3 times the upper limit of normal) elevations of ALT or AST (SGOT) occurred in controlled trials in less than 1% of patients.
Physician and patients should remain alert for the hepatotoxicity. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g. nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, abdominal tenderness in the right upper quadrant and "flu-like" symptoms) and the steps to take should these signs and symptoms occur. Severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and cases of fatal hepatitis, have been reported with piroxicam. Although such reactions are rare, if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, if clinical signs consistent with liver disease develop or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g. eosinophilia, rash etc.), piroxicam should be discontinued.

Use in the elderly.

See Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Risk of GI ulceration, bleeding and perforation with NSAID therapy, Concomitant use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists and anti-inflammatory drugs and thiazide diuretics, Use in renal impairment. Also see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions, Antihypertensives.

Paediatric use.

The use of piroxicam in children under 12 years is not recommended as safety and efficacy in this age group are not established.

Effects on laboratory tests.

No data available.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

Anticoagulants.

The concurrent use of NSAIDs and coumarin anticoagulants (including warfarin) has been associated with severe, sometimes fatal, haemorrhage. Patients should be monitored closely if piroxicam is administered concurrently with oral anticoagulants, including warfarin/coumarin-type anticoagulants and novel oral anticoagulants (e.g. apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban) (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Use with oral anticoagulants).
Piroxicam, like other NSAIDs, decreases platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time. This effect should be kept in mind when bleeding times are determined.
The exact mechanism of the interaction between warfarin and NSAIDs is unknown, but may involve enhanced bleeding from NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulceration, or an additive effect of anticoagulation by warfarin and inhibition of platelet function by NSAIDs.
Warfarin should be used in combination with piroxicam only if necessary (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions, Protein-bound agents).

Protein-bound agents.

Piroxicam is highly protein bound and therefore might be expected to displace other protein bound drugs. The physician should closely monitor dosage requirements of drugs that are highly protein bound when these are administered concomitantly with piroxicam. Such drugs include coumarin anticoagulants (e.g. warfarin), hydantoins, sulfonamides and sulfonylureas.

Methotrexate.

When methotrexate is administered concurrently with NSAIDs, including piroxicam, the NSAID may decrease elimination of methotrexate resulting in increased plasma levels of methotrexate. Extreme care should be exercised in giving methotrexate, especially high doses to patients on piroxicam therapy, because lethal interactions have been reported between NSAIDs and methotrexate.

Aspirin.

As with other NSAIDs, the use of piroxicam in conjunction with aspirin or the concomitant use of two NSAIDs is not recommended because data are inadequate to demonstrate that the combination produces greater benefit than with the drug alone and the potential for adverse reactions is increased (see Section 4.3 Contraindications; Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
Plasma levels of piroxicam are depressed to approximately 80% of their normal values when piroxicam is administered in conjunction with aspirin (3900 mg/day) but concomitant administration of antacids has no effect on piroxicam plasma levels.
Piroxicam interferes with the anti-platelet effect of low-dose aspirin, and thus may interfere with aspirin's prophylactic treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Cholestyramine.

Cholestyramine has been shown to enhance the oral clearance and decrease the half-life of piroxicam. To minimise this interaction, it is prudent to administer piroxicam at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after cholestyramine.

Furosemide (frusemide).

As with other NSAIDs, care should be taken in the administration of piroxicam in combination with furosemide (frusemide) for treating cardiac failure since NSAIDs antagonise the diuretic effect of furosemide (frusemide).

Lithium.

NSAIDs, including piroxicam have been shown to decrease the renal clearance and increase steady state plasma concentrations of lithium. Plasma lithium concentrations should be monitored when initiating, adjusting or discontinuing concurrent piroxicam therapy.

Cimetidine.

Results of two separate studies indicate a slight increase in absorption of piroxicam following cimetidine administration, but no significant changes in elimination parameters. Cimetidine increases the area under the curve (AUC0-120 hours) and Cmax of piroxicam by approximately 13 to 15%. Elimination rate constants and half-life show no significant differences. The small but significant increase in absorption is unlikely to be clinically significant.

Anti-hypertensives.

NSAIDs can reduce the efficacy of diuretics and other anti-hypertensive drugs, including ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists (AIIAs; also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs) and beta-blockers (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Hypertension).
In patients with impaired renal function (e.g. dehydrated patients or elderly patients with compromised renal function), the co-administration of an ACE inhibitor or an AIIA and/or a diuretic with a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor can increase the deterioration of renal function, including the possibility of acute renal failure, which is usually reversible.
The occurrence of these interactions should be considered in patients taking piroxicam with an ACE inhibitor or an AIIA and/or a diuretic. Thus, caution should be taken when administrating piroxicam with these drugs, especially in elderly patients (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Concomitant use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists and anti-inflammatory drugs and thiazide diuretics).
Patients should be adequately hydrated and the need to monitor renal function should be assessed before, and periodically, during concomitant treatment.

Cardiac glycosides (digoxin and digitoxin).

Concomitant administration of NSAIDs with cardiac glycosides (e.g. digoxin, digitoxin) may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increase plasma glycoside levels.

Corticosteroids or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

Concomitant administration of NSAIDs and corticosteroids or SSRIs increases the risk of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding.

Ciclosporin or tacrolimus.

Concomitant administration of NSAIDs with ciclosporin or tacrolimus increases the risk of nephrotoxicity.

Poor metabolisers of CYP2C9 substrates.

Patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolisers based on previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates should be administered piroxicam with caution as they may have abnormally high plasma levels due to reduced metabolic clearance.

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

Based on the mechanism of action, the use of NSAIDs, including piroxicam, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of NSAIDs, including piroxicam, should be considered.
(Category C)
Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis might adversely affect pregnancy. Epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after use of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors in early pregnancy. In animals, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.
NSAIDs given during the latter part of pregnancy, may cause premature closure of the foetal ductus arteriosus, foetal renal impairment, inhibition of platelet aggregation, prolong labour and delay birth. Therefore, piroxicam should be avoided during the last trimester of pregnancy. Continuous treatment with NSAIDs during the last month of pregnancy should be given only on sound indications. During the last few days before expected birth, agents with an inhibitory effect on prostaglandin synthesis should be avoided.
If used during second or third trimester of pregnancy, NSAIDs may cause foetal renal dysfunction which may result in reduction of amniotic fluid volume or oligohydramnios in severe cases. Such effects may occur shortly after treatment initiation and is usually reversible. Pregnant women on piroxicam should be closely monitored for amniotic fluid volume.
Although no teratogenic effects were seen in animal testing, piroxicam should not be used in pregnant women or those likely to become pregnant unless the expected benefits outweigh the potential risk.
Studies in 6 women treated for up to 52 days have shown that piroxicam appeared in breast milk in a concentration approximately 1% to 3% of that reached in maternal plasma. Piroxicam is not recommended for nursing mothers unless the expected benefits outweigh any potential risk, as clinical safety has not been demonstrated.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

The effects of this medicine on a person's ability to drive and use machines were not assessed as part of its registration.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Results from clinical trials involving approximately 2300 patients (of whom about 400 were treated for more than one year and 170 for more than two years) indicate that about 30% of patients reported side effects at a dose of 20 mg/day. This increased with doses of 30 - 40 mg/day.

More common reactions (more than 3%).

Gastrointestinal.

These have been the most frequent side effects, occurring in about 20% of patients. Approximately 5% discontinued therapy with an overall incidence of peptic ulcer of about 1%.
The gastrointestinal side effects included abdominal discomfort (5.7%), flatulence (5.2%), nausea (4.8%), abdominal pain (4.7%), epigastric distress (4.1%), constipation (3.8%) and diarrhoea (3.2%).

Central nervous system.

Dizziness (4.1%), headache (4.1%).

Less common reactions (less than 3%).

Auditory and vestibular.

Tinnitus, vertigo, deafness.

Laboratory abnormalities.

Elevated levels of hepatic enzymes (LDH, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases); elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine; depression of levels of haemoglobin and haematocrit; depression of levels of serum proteins, platelet and white blood cell count.

Cardiovascular.

Hypertension, tachycardia, palpitations.

Dermatological.

Skin rash (2.4%), pruritus (1.1%), onycholysis, alopecia.
Photoallergic reactions have been infrequently associated with therapy. As with other NSAIDs, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome, drugs), toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's disease) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome may develop in rare cases. Vesiculo bullous reactions have been reported rarely.

Gastrointestinal.

Anorexia, vomiting, indigestion, pancreatitis, hepatitis.

Central nervous system.

Sedation, drowsiness (2.1%), others (each less than 1%) include amnesia, anxiety, depression, malaise, hallucinations, insomnia, dream abnormalities, nervousness, paraesthesia, personality change, tremors, akathisia.

Genitourinary.

Oedema (2.7%), others (less than 1%) includes dysuria, urinary frequency, haematuria, oliguria, menorrhagia.

Eyes, nose, and throat.

Stomatitis (1%), blurred vision, eye irritation/swelling, epistaxis, glossitis.

Haematological.

Decreases in haemoglobin and haematocrit, unassociated with obvious gastrointestinal bleeding, have occurred. Anaemia has been reported.
Thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic purpura (Henoch-Schönlein), petechial rash, ecchymosis, leucopenia and eosinophilia have been reported. Rare cases of aplastic anaemia and haemolytic anaemia are also reported.

Miscellaneous (each less than 1%).

Breathlessness, chest pain, hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia, thirst, chills, sweating, flushing, increased appetite, weight increase or decrease. Rare anecdotal reports of positive antinuclear antibodies.

Serious or life-threatening reactions.

Peptic ulceration and gastrointestinal haemorrhage may occur. The patient should be admitted to hospital to determine the underlying lesion, followed by appropriate treatment.

Post marketing experience.

Additional adverse events reported post-marketing include:

Central nervous system.

Aseptic meningitis.

Dermatological.

Dermatitis exfoliative, erythema multiforme

Renal.

Nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, renal failure

Body as a whole.

Fluid retention.

Gynaecological.

Decreased female fertility.

Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at http://www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems and contact Apotex Medical Information enquiries/Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting on 1800 195 055.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms.

Insufficient human data are available to fully assess the toxicity following acute overdosage. Mild symptoms of lethargy, drowsiness and gastrointestinal upset have been reported. Rarely severe overdose may cause hypotension, coma, respiratory depression, gastrointestinal bleeding or acute renal insufficiency. Low grade fever and sinus tachycardia have been reported with following NSAID overdose. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following overdose.

Treatment.

In the event of overdosage with piroxicam, supportive and symptomatic therapy is indicated. Studies indicate that administration of activated charcoal may result in reduced absorption and re-absorption of piroxicam thus reducing the total amount of active drug available. Activated charcoal is most effective when administered within 1 hour of ingestion. In patients who are not fully conscious or who have an impaired gag reflex, consideration should be given to administering activated charcoal via a nasogastric tube once the airway is protected. Haemodialysis, forced diuresis, or haemoperfusion are probably ineffective in enhancing elimination, since the drug is highly protein bound. There appears to be no indication for the alkalinisation of the urine.
For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poisons Information Centre on 131126 (Australia).

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

Mechanism of action.

Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties.
The mode of action of piroxicam has not been fully established; however, independent studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated that piroxicam interacts at several steps in the immune and inflammation responses through the following mechanisms:
Inhibition of prostanoid synthesis, including prostaglandins (known mediators of inflammation), through a reversible inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzyme.
Inhibition of neutrophil aggregation in blood vessels.
Inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release from stimulated leucocytes.
Inhibition of polymorphonuclear cell and monocyte migration to the area of inflammation.
Inhibition of superoxide anion generation by the neutrophil.
Reduction of both systemic and synovial fluid rheumatoid factor production in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.
Piroxicam has been demonstrated to inhibit chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and the migration of leucocytes in canine synovitis test. It also inhibits collagen induced platelet aggregation. Piroxicam does not act by pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Studies in vitro have not revealed any negative effect on cartilage metabolism.

Clinical trials.

No data available.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

Absorption.

Piroxicam is well absorbed following oral administration. The rate and extent of absorption are not affected by administration in the fasting state. The plasma half-life in humans is approximately 36 to 45 hours and stable plasma concentrations are maintained throughout the day on once daily dosage. Following repeated administration, plasma concentrations increase for five to seven days, by which time a steady state is reached which is not exceeded following further constant daily drug administration.

Distribution.

Piroxicam is extensively bound to plasma proteins (99%) and therefore may be expected to displace other protein bound drugs (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions).

Metabolism.

Piroxicam is extensively metabolised, with less than 5% of the daily dose excreted unchanged in urine and faeces. One important metabolic pathway is hydroxylation of the pyridyl ring of the piroxicam side chain, followed by conjugation with glucuronic acid and urinary elimination.

Excretion.

Approximately 5% of the dose is metabolised to and excreted as saccharin.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Genotoxicity.

No data available.

Carcinogenicity.

Sub-acute and chronic toxicity studies have been carried out in rats, mice, dogs and monkeys. The pathology most often seen was that characteristically associated with the animal toxicology of NSAIDs, i.e. renal papillary necrosis and gastrointestinal lesions.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

Lactose monohydrate, maize starch, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, purified talc, titanium dioxide, gelatin, brilliant blue FCF (CI 42090), allura red AC (CI 16035), iron oxide red (CI 77491), Opacode S-1-7085 white.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Incompatibilities were either not assessed or not identified as part of the registration of this medicine.

6.3 Shelf Life

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the packaging.

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

Store below 25°C. Protect from heat.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

APO-Piroxicam 10 mg capsules.

Blister pack (in PVC-PVAC coated aluminium foil) of 50 capsules (AUST R Number: 75039).

APO-Piroxicam 20 mg capsules.

Blister pack (in PVC-PVAC coated aluminium foil) of 25 capsules (AUST R Number: 75043).
APO - is a registered trade mark of Apotex Pty Ltd.
Not all strengths may be available.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of by taking to your local pharmacy.

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

Piroxicam is a white or slightly yellow crystalline powder. It is poorly soluble in water, dilute acid and most organic solvents. It is slightly soluble in alcohols and in aqueous alkaline solution. It is a hygroscopic solid, which melts in the range 196 to 200°C.
Piroxicam is an amphoteric compound. It exhibits a weakly acidic 4-hydroxy proton (pKa 5.1) and a weakly basic pyridyl nitrogen (pKa 1.5) as determined by ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry in methanol-water (2.5/97.5, v/v) solvent medium.

Chemical structure.


Chemical name: 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1, 2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1, 1-dioxide. It is a member of a new chemical class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, N-heterocyclic carboxamides of 1, 2-benzothiazine-1, 1-dioxide.
Molecular formula: C15H13N3O4S.
Molecular weight: 331.4.

CAS number.

36322-90-4.

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

S4 - Prescription Only Medicine.

Summary Table of Changes