Consumer medicine information

Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

Glucose; Sodium chloride; Calcium chloride dihydrate; Magnesium chloride hexahydrate; Sodium lactate

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Dianeal PD-4 Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

Active ingredient

Glucose; Sodium chloride; Calcium chloride dihydrate; Magnesium chloride hexahydrate; Sodium lactate

Schedule

Unscheduled

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution.

What is in this leaflet?

This leaflet answers some common questions about Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution. It does not contain all of the available information. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you using Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution against the benefit they expect it will have for you.

It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.

If you have any concerns about taking this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

What Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution is used for?

Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys can no longer function adequately and a person’s survival depends upon either a kidney transplant or renal replacement therapy, including dialysis.

Dialysis is the process of filtering or cleansing the blood of waste products and excess water and removing them from the body. There are two methods of dialysis treatment - haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Both employ specially formulated solutions to perform blood cleansing.

Peritoneal dialysis uses the body's own peritoneal or abdominal membrane as a filter to cleanse the blood. The peritoneal membrane lines the peritoneal cavity. A sterile tube called a catheter is inserted by a simple surgical procedure through the wall of your abdominal cavity. This provides an opening through which the dialysis solution can be infused into the abdominal cavity. Waste products pass from the blood stream, through the peritoneal membrane and into the dialysis solution. Blood cells and large molecules such as proteins are retained since they are too large to pass through the membrane. The used dialysis solution is periodically drained from the abdominal cavity and replaced with fresh solution, usually 3-4 times a day.

Peritoneal dialysis procedures are easy to learn but it is imperative that you adhere to the procedure taught by your health care professional.

There are two ways of performing peritoneal dialysis: Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) or Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) (i.e., peritoneal dialysis performed by a machine). PD (Peritoneal Dialysis) offers continuous self-care dialysis.

Before you use Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

The exchange procedure involves draining the used dialysis solution containing the waste products, and instilling fresh solution into the peritoneal cavity. This must be performed with great care to avoid infection. The exchange procedure should be undertaken where there is privacy and a clean, well-lit environment: home, office or bathroom. The environment should be clean, dust-free, ventilated but free from draughts.

It is important that the catheter exit site on the abdominal wall is kept clean and free from infection. The catheter must be well-secured. To ensure this, you will be required to examine and cleanse your exit site daily. This must be done in the manner in which you were taught during your peritoneal dialysis education.

Check the product label for the correct volume, Glucose concentration and expiry date.The integrity of the pack should be checked by squeezing the bag and examining carefully for signs of leakage. Ensure that the solution is clear.

How to use Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

The single most important consideration in PD is asepsis, i.e., maintaining very clean conditions during all procedures. While the exchange procedure is a simple technique to learn, it must be done with great care every time. This is because there is always a risk that you may contaminate the solution and therefore cause an infection.

It will probably be necessary to warm CAPD solutions to body temperature before use. Specially designed thermostatically-controlled portable warming boxes are available for this purpose. Use of microwave ovens is not recommended because the product may be damaged, resulting in leakage and risk of infection.

In APD the machine warms the solution to body temperature before it is installed in the peritoneal cavity.

Several important points must be considered before and during use of Dianeal ® Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions:

  1. Use the solutions strictly in accordance with the instructions provided to you during your peritoneal dialysis education.
  2. You should dialyse only with the volume of solution and at the frequency prescribed by your Kidney Doctor or your Dialysis Centre.
  3. For the route of administration, please see Description and Use of Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions above.
  4. Do not use the solution unless it is clear and the seal is intact.
  5. Aseptic technique must be used all times.
  6. The expected effects of dialysis are correction of acid-base balance and electrolytedisturbances, fluid accumulation and removal of toxic waste products from the blood.
  7. Failure to perform dialysis as ordered by your Kidney Doctor will result in rapid acid-base balance disturbances and fluid accumulation (which may result in pulmonary oedema and electrolyte imbalances including raised serum potassium). This could cause a life-threatening situation.
  8. Cessation of dialysis must be in consultation with your Kidney Doctor or the Renal Unit or Dialysis Centre.
  9. An accurate fluid balance record must be kept.
  10. You must check your weight regularly to avoid accumulating fluid in your body.
  11. You will be required to have regular blood tests in order to monitor your condition.
  12. You should regularly visit your Kidney Doctor or the Renal Unit or Dialysis Centre.

While you are using Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

Discuss with your doctor or dialysis nurse the progress you have experienced during the treatment, whether any complication has occurred, especially during the first few days of therapy. Frequent clinical evaluation and laboratory tests may be required.

Side effects

Patients using peritoneal dialysis have experienced one or more of the following unwanted effects: abdominal distension, loss of appetite, constipation, scrotal or labial swelling, backache, postural disturbances, pain on inflow and/or outflow, peritonitis (inflammation/infection of the peritoneal cavity), exit site infection, tunnel infection, muscle weakness and cramps. Any undesirable effect should be reported immediately to your Kidney Doctor or the Renal Unit or Dialysis Centre.

In case of Overdose

If you accidentally infuse a larger volume of Dianeal than prescribed by your Kidney Doctor, you may experience abdominal distension and pain. If you exceed the number of exchanges prescribed, muscle weakness and cramps may occur. You should seek advice from your Kidney Doctor or the Renal Unit or Dialysis Centre.

Product Descriptions

What Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution looks like?

Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions are supplied in either a single Viaflex plastic bag or a Freeline Solo Twin Bag (solution bag with drainage bag attached).

What is in Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution?

Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution contains the following ingredients:

Active Ingredients: Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate, Glucose Monohydrate, Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Lactate

Inactive Ingredients: Water for Injections, Sodium Hydroxide, Hydrochloric Acid

How to store Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

Store Dianeal solutions under clean, dry conditions, protected from physical damage and at temperatures not exceeding 30°C. However, individual bags may be warmed in a warming box to 38°C prior to use. Microwave ovens should not be used (see above). The duration of warming an individual bag should not exceed 1 day.

The expiry date is located on the bottom right-hand corner of the label. Solutions should not be used after the expiry date. Dianeal solution should be clear. If it is not, do not use that bag; isolate it from your stock and return it to your Dialysis Centre. Do not use solutions from damaged cartons.

Where can you get more information?

Further information can be obtained from your Kidney Doctor, or the Renal Unit or Dialysis Centre of the hospital which provided your peritoneal dialysis education.

Name and address of the Sponsor

Manufactured by:

Baxter Healthcare Pty Ltd
1 Baxter Drive
Old Toongabbie NSW 2146
Australia

Distributed in New Zealand By:

Baxter Healthcare Ltd
33 Vestey Drive
Mount Wellington
Auckland 6New Zealand

This Consumer Medicines Information Leaflet was revised June 2016 


BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Dianeal PD-4 Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

Active ingredient

Glucose; Sodium chloride; Calcium chloride dihydrate; Magnesium chloride hexahydrate; Sodium lactate

Schedule

Unscheduled

 

Name of the medicine

Dianeal PD-2, PD-4 and 1 mmol/L Calcium Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions.

Description

Dianel PD-2, PD-4 and 1 mmol/L Calcium Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions are sterile, nonpyrogenic and contain no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents or added buffers.
See Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 for the contents of each 1000 mL of Dianeal Peritoneal Dialysis Solution.
Potassium is omitted from Dianeal Solutions because dialysis may be performed to correct hyperkalaemia.
Because average plasma magnesium levels in chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients have been observed to be elevated (Nolph et al. 1981), the magnesium concentration of this formulation has been reduced to 0.25 mmol/L.
Because average serum bicarbonate levels in chronic CAPD patients have been observed to be somewhat lower than normal values (Nolph et al. 1981), the bicarbonate precursor (lactate) concentration of this formulation has been raised to 40 mmol/L.

Dianeal Freeline Solo Twin bag.

The solution contained in the Freeline Solo products can be Dianeal PD-2, PD-4 or 1 mmol/L Calcium. The solution bag is attached to a Y set and an empty container. Freeline Solo is a completely disposable exchange package. A fresh sterile pack is used for each exchange and this system requires only one connection per exchange.

Pharmacology

Peritoneal dialysis is a procedure for removing toxic substances and metabolites normally excreted by the kidneys and for aiding in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance.
The procedure is accomplished by instilling peritoneal dialysis fluid through a conduit into the peritoneal cavity. With the exception of lactate, present as a bicarbonate precursor, electrolyte concentrations in the fluid have been formulated in an attempt to normalise plasma electrolyte concentrations, which are controlled by osmosis and diffusion across the peritoneal membrane (between the plasma of the patient and the dialysis fluid). Toxic substances and metabolites, present in high concentration in the blood, cross the peritoneal membrane into the dialysing fluid. Glucose in the dialysing fluid is used to produce a solution hyperosmolar to the plasma, creating an osmotic gradient which facilitates transfer of extracellular fluid into the peritoneal cavity. After a period of time (dwell time), the fluid is drained by gravity from the cavity.

Indications

Dianeal PD-2, PD-4 and 1 mmol/L Calcium Peritoneal Dialysis Solution is indicated for use in chronic renal failure patients being maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).

Contraindications

Do not administer unless the solution is clear and the seal is intact.
Dianeal is contraindicated in patients with pre-existing severe lactic acidosis; uncorrectable mechanical defects that prevent effective peritoneal dialysis or increase the risk of infection; documented loss of peritoneal function or extensive adhesions that compromise peritoneal function.

Precautions

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is considered to be a known, rare complication of peritoneal dialysis therapy. EPS has been reported in patients using peritoneal dialysis solutions including Dianeal. Infrequently, fatal outcomes of EPS have been reported with Dianeal.
Improper clamping or priming sequence may result in infusion of air into the peritoneal cavity, which may result in abdominal pain and/or peritonitis.
If peritonitis occurs, the choice and dosage of antibiotics should be based upon the results of identification and sensitivity studies of the isolated organism(s) when possible. Prior to identification of the involved organism(s), broad spectrum antibiotics may be indicated.
Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with a known allergy to corn or corn products. Hypersensitivity reactions such as those due to a corn starch allergy, including anaphylactic/ anaphylactoid reactions, may occur. Stop the infusion immediately and drain the solution from the peritoneal cavity if any signs or symptoms of a suspected hypersensitivity reaction develop. Appropriate therapeutic countermeasures must be instituted as clinically indicated.
Patients with severe lactic acidosis should not be treated with lactate based peritoneal dialysis solutions (see Contraindications). It is recommended that patients with conditions known to increase the risk of lactic acidosis [e.g. severe hypotension or sepsis that can be associated with acute renal failure, inborn errors of metabolism, treatment with drugs such as metformin and nucleoside/ nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)] must be monitored for occurrence of lactic acidosis before the start of treatment and during treatment with lactate based peritoneal dialysis solutions.
When prescribing the solution to be used for an individual patient, consideration should be given to the potential interaction between the dialysis treatment and therapy directed at other existing illnesses. Serum potassium, calcium and magnesium levels should be monitored carefully in patients treated with cardiac glycosides.
Azotaemic diabetics require careful monitoring of insulin requirements during and following dialysis with glucose containing solutions. Dianeal products contain varying concentrations of glucose, ranging between 0.55 to 4.25%. In diabetic patients, blood glucose levels should be regularly monitored, and the dosage of insulin or other treatments for hyperglycaemia should be adjusted.
Aseptic technique must be used throughout the procedure and at its termination in order to reduce the possibility of infection. If peritonitis occurs, the choice and dosage of antibiotics should be based upon the results of identification and sensitivity studies of the isolated organism(s) when possible. Prior to identification of the involved organism(s), broad spectrum antibiotics may be indicated.
Peritoneal dialysis should be done with great care, if at all, in patients with a number of abdominal conditions including disruption of the peritoneal membrane and diaphragm by surgery or from congenital anomalies or trauma until healing is complete, abdominal tumours, extensive adhesions, bowel distension, undiagnosed abdominal disease, abdominal wall infection, hernias or burns, faecal fistula, colostomy or ileostomy, frequent episodes of diverticulitis, inflammatory or ischaemic bowel disease, tense ascites, obesity, and large polycystic kidneys, or other conditions that compromise the integrity of the abdominal wall, abdominal surface, or intra-abdominal cavity. Peritoneal dialysis should also be done with caution in patients with other conditions including aortic graft replacement and severe pulmonary disease. When assessing peritoneal dialysis as the mode of therapy in such extreme situations, the benefits to the patient must be weighed against the possible complications.
Protein, amino acids, water soluble vitamins, and other medicines may be lost during peritoneal dialysis and may require replacement.
Patients should be carefully monitored to avoid over and under hydration. An accurate fluid balance record must be kept and the weight of the patient carefully monitored to avoid over or under hydration and severe consequences including congestive heart failure, volume depletion, and shock. Excessive use of Dianeal PD-2, PD-4 and 1 mmol/L Calcium solutions with 4.25% Glucose during peritoneal dialysis treatment can result in significant removal of water from the patient. Over infusion of a Dianeal volume into the peritoneal cavity may be characterised by abdominal distension, abdominal pain and/or shortness of breath (see Overdosage for treatment of overinfusion).
Routine periodic evaluation of blood chemistries (including parathyroid hormone and lipid parameters), serum electrolyte concentrations (particularly bicarbonate, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphate) and haematologic factors, as well as other indicators of patient status, should be performed for stable patients undergoing maintenance peritoneal dialysis.
Potassium is omitted from Dianeal PD-2, PD-4 and 1 mmol/L Calcium solutions because dialysis may be performed to correct hyperkalaemia. In situations where there is normal serum potassium or hypokalaemia, addition of potassium chloride (up to 4 mEq/L) to prevent severe hypokalaemia should be made after careful evaluation of serum and total body potassium and only under the direction of a physician.
Not for use in the treatment of lactic acidosis.
Low Calcium Dianeal PD solution should be considered with patients with hypercalcaemia. Patients receiving this solution should have their calcium levels monitored for the development of hypocalcaemia or worsening of hypercalcaemia. In these circumstances, adjustments to the dosage of the phosphate binders and/or vitamin D analogs should be considered by the physician.
Hyperphosphataemia may develop from use of 1 mmol/L Calcium solutions which may subsequently lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Dialysis using 1 mmol/L Calcium solution requires close and continuous monitoring of PTH and bone metabolism.
Because average plasma magnesium levels in chronic CAPD patients have been observed to be elevated (Nolph et al. 1981), the magnesium concentration of this formulation has been reduced to 0.25 mmol/L. Serum magnesium levels should be monitored and if low, oral magnesium supplements, oral magnesium containing phosphate binders, or peritoneal dialysis solutions containing higher magnesium concentrations may be used.

Use in pregnancy.

There are no adequate data from the use of Dianeal in pregnant women. Physicians should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits for each specific patient before prescribing Dianeal.

Use in lactation.

There are no adequate data from the use of Dianeal in lactating women. Physicians should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits for each specific patient before prescribing Dianeal.

Interactions

No clinical drug interaction studies have been conducted with Dianeal.
Additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist familiar with peritoneal dialysis, if available. When introducing additives, refer to directions for use accompanying drugs to obtain full information on additives, and use aseptic techniques. Mix thoroughly. Do not store.
Refer to manufacturer's directions accompanying drugs to obtain full information on additives.
Significant losses of protein, amino acids and water soluble vitamins, as well as other dialysible medicines may occur during peritoneal dialysis. Replacement therapy should be provided as necessary.

Adverse Effects

Adverse reactions to peritoneal dialysis include mechanical and solution related problems as well as the results of contamination of equipment or improper technique in catheter placement. Abdominal pain, bleeding, peritonitis, subcutaneous infection around a chronic peritoneal catheter, catheter blockage, difficulty in fluid removal, and ileus are among the complications of the procedure. Solution related adverse reactions may include electrolyte and fluid imbalances, hypovolaemia, hypervolaemia, hypertension, hypotension, and muscle cramping and hyperphosphataemia (which may induce secondary hyperparathyroidism).
The following adverse reactions have been reported in postmarketing experience.

Infections and infestations.

Fungal peritonitis, bacterial peritonitis, catheter related infection.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders.

Hypovolaemia, hypervolaemia, fluid retention, hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, dehydration and hypochloraemia.

Vascular disorders.

Hypotension and hypertension.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders.

Dyspnoea.

Gastrointestinal disorders.

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, peritonitis, peritoneal cloudy effluent, vomiting, diarrhoea, nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, abdominal discomfort.

Skin and subcutaneous disorders.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, rash (including pruritic, erythematous and generalised) and pruritus.

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders.

Myalgia, muscle spasms and musculoskeletal pain.

General disorders and administration site conditions.

Generalised oedema, pyrexia, malaise, infusion site pain and catheter related complication.

Dosage and Administration

Dianeal PD-2, PD-4 and 1 mmol/L Calcium solutions are intended for intraperitoneal administration only. The mode of therapy (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis), frequency of treatment, formulation, exchange volume, duration of dwell and length of dialysis should be selected by the physician responsible for and supervising the treatment of the individual patient.
To avoid the risk of severe dehydration and hypovolaemia and to minimise the loss of protein, it is advisable to select the peritoneal dialysis solution with the lowest level of osmolality consistent with the fluid removal requirements for that exchange.
As the patient's body weight becomes closer to the ideal dry weight, lowering the glucose concentration of Dianeal is recommended. Dianeal 4.25% glucose containing solution is a high osmotic pressure fluid and using it alone may cause dehydration (see Precautions).
Heating the dialysis solution to 37°C (while in the overpouch) may decrease discomfort and heat loss and result in increased clearances of urea when compared to solution at room temperature (Gross and McDonald 1967). Only dry heat (e.g. heating pad, warming plate) should be used; solutions should not be heated in water or in a microwave oven due to the potential for patient injury or discomfort..
The addition of heparin to the dialysis solution may be indicated to aid in prevention of catheter blockage in patients with peritonitis, or when the solution drainage contains fibrinous or proteinaceous material (Ribot et al. 1966). Heparin 1,000 to 2,000 international units of heparin per litre of solution has been recommended (Furman et al. 1978).

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).

For maintenance dialysis of chronic renal failure patients.
In this technique, typically 1.5 to 2.0 L of dialysis solution (depending upon patient size) is instilled into the peritoneal cavity and the peritoneal access device is then clamped. The solution remains in the cavity for dwell times of 4-6 hours during the day and approximately eight hours overnight. At the conclusion of each dwell period, the access device is opened, the solution drained and fresh solution instilled. The procedure is repeated 3-5 times per day, 6-7 days per week. Typically, the majority of exchanges will utilise 1.5% and 2.5% glucose containing peritoneal dialysis solutions, with 4.25% glucose containing solutions being used when extra fluid removal is required. Patient weight is used as the indicator of the need for fluid removal (Popovich et al. 1978).

Directions for use.

Dianeal solutions are intended for intraperitoneal administration only. Do not use for intravenous administration. Do not administer if the solution is discoloured, cloudy, contains particulate matter or shows evidence of leakage or if seals are not intact.
Use aseptic technique throughout the peritoneal dialysis procedure. To add medication:
1. Prepare medication site. If the resealable rubber plug on the medication port is missing or partially removed, do not use product if medication is to be added.
2. Using syringe with 19-22 gauge needle, puncture resealable rubber plug at target area and inject.
3. Mix solution and medication thoroughly. For high density medication such as potassium chloride, squeeze medication port while port is upright and mix thoroughly.

Preparation for administration.

1. Place the container on a table or suspend from a support.
2. Remove the protector from the outlet port of the container.
3. Attach the solution transfer set; refer to complete directions accompanying the set.
The drained fluid should be inspected for the presence of fibrin or cloudiness, which may indicate the presence of peritonitis. Discard any unused remaining solution. For single use only.

Overdosage

Overdose by overinfusion of a Dianeal volume into the peritoneal cavity is characterised by abdominal pain and distension and shortness of breath.
There is a potential for overdose resulting in hypervolaemia, hypovolaemia, electrolyte disturbances or hyperglycaemia. Excessive use of Dianeal peritoneal dialysis solution with 4.25% glucose during a peritoneal dialysis treatment can result in significant removal of water from the patient.
Treatment of Dianeal overdose by overinfusion is to release the Dianeal from the peritoneal cavity by drainage of the Dianeal volume contained within the peritoneal cavity. Hypovolaemia may be managed by fluid replacement either orally or intravenously, depending on the degree of dehydration.
Electrolyte disturbances may be managed according to the specific electrolyte disturbance verified by blood testing. The most probable disturbance, hypokalaemia, may be managed by the oral ingestion of potassium or by the addition of potassium chloride in the peritoneal dialysis solution prescribed by the treating physician. Hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients may be managed by adjusting the insulin dose or oral medications.

Presentation

Dianeal PD-2 Peritoneal Dialysis Solution.

Solutions containing glucose 0.55, 1.5, 2.5 or 4.25%.

Single bag.

500 mL in 1000 mL nominal size container (System III).
1000 mL in 1000 mL nominal size container (System III).
1500 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container (System III).
2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container (System II).
2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container (System III).
2500 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container (System III).
3000 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container (System III).
5000 mL in 5000 mL nominal size container (System III).
6000 mL in 5000 mL nominal size container (System III).

Twin bag.

1500 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container.
2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container.
2500 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container.
3000 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container.

Dianeal PD-4 Peritoneal Dialysis Solution.

Solutions containing glucose 0.55, 1.5, 2.5 or 4.25%.

Single bag.

1000 mL in 1000 mL nominal size container (System III).
1500 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container (System III).
2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container (System II).
2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container (System III).
2500 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container (System III).
3000 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container (System III).
5000 mL in 5000 mL nominal size container (System III).
6000 mL in 5000 mL nominal size container (System III).

Twin bag.

1500 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container.
2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container.
2500 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container.
3000 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container.

Dianeal 1 mmol/L Calcium Peritoneal Dialysis Solution.

Solutions containing glucose 0.55, 1.5, 2.5 or 4.25%.

Single bag.

2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container (System III).
2500 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container (System III).
3000 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container (System III).
5000 mL in 5000 mL nominal size container (System III).
6000 mL in 5000 mL nominal size container (System III).

Twin bag.

1500 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container.
2000 mL in 2000 mL nominal size container.
2500 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container.
3000 mL in 3000 mL nominal size container.

References

• Chang, T.M.S. 1977. Criteria, evaluation, and perspective of various microencapsulated charcoal hemoperfusion systems. Dialysis and Transplantation: 50 - 53
• Furman, K.I. et al. 1978. Activity of intraperitoneal heparin during peritonal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 9: 15 - 18
• Gross, M. and McDonald, Jr., H.P. 1967. Effect of dialysate temperature and flow rate on peritoneal clearance. JAMA 202: 363 - 365
• Mattocks, A.M. and El-Bassiouni, E.A. 1971. Peritoneal dialysis: a review. J. Pharm Sciences 60: 1767 - 1782
• Nolph. K.D. et al. 1981. Considerations for dialysis solution modifications. In Peritoneal Dialysis, eds. Robert C. Atkins et al. Chapter 25. New York: Churchill Livingston.
• Popovich, R.P. et al. 1978. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Annals Intern Med 8: 449 - 456
• Ribot, S. et al. 1966. Complications of peritoneal dialysis. AM J. Med Sciences 252: 505 - 517

Poison Schedule

Unscheduled.