Consumer medicine information

Forteo [8626]

Teriparatide (rbe)

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Forteo

Active ingredient

Teriparatide (rbe)

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Forteo [8626].

What is in this leaflet

This leaflet answers some common questions about FORTEO. It does not contain all the available information and does not take the place of talking to your doctor or health care professional.

All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you using FORTEO against the benefits they expect it will have for you.

If you have any concerns about using this medicine, ask your doctor or health care professional.

Keep this leaflet with the medicine. You may need to read it again.

What is the most important information I should know about FORTEO?

In rats that were treated with FORTEO for more than a quarter of their lifetime, teriparatide caused some rats to develop osteosarcoma, a bone cancer. The potential to cause osteosarcoma in rats was increased with higher doses and longer periods of treatment.

Osteosarcoma in humans is a serious but very rare cancer. Osteosarcoma occurs in about 4 out of every million people each year.

There is one report of osteosarcoma in a patient administered FORTEO for 14 months. Due to the complex medical history, cause and effect between FORTEO and osteosarcoma could not be established. At present, it is not known whether humans treated with FORTEO would have an increased chance of getting osteosarcoma.

You should discuss any safety concerns you have about the use of FORTEO with your doctor.

What FORTEO is used for

FORTEO is used to treat osteoporosis in women after menopause and in men.

Osteoporosis is a disease which causes bones to become less dense, gradually making them weaker, more brittle and likely to break. This disease is especially common in women after the menopause. Osteoporosis is also common in patients receiving corticosteroids such as prednisone, cortisone.

Although it may have no symptoms at first, osteoporosis makes you more likely to break bones, especially in your spine, hips and wrists and may cause back pain, loss of height and a curved back.

This medicine is a recombinant parathyroid hormone.

It works by activating cells in the bone to form new bone. Using this medicine each day will protect your bones by making them stronger and your risk of fracture will be reduced.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you. Your doctor may have prescribed it for another reason.

This medicine is available only with a doctor's prescription.

This medicine is not expected to affect your ability to drive a car or use machinery. Some patients may feel dizzy after injecting FORTEO. If you feel dizzy you should not drive or use machines until you feel better.

Before you use FORTEO

Your health care professional should teach you how to use the FORTEO pen. You should also read the user manual for information on how to use the pen before beginning therapy. Read the user manual and package leaflet each time you get a new pen, in case something has changed.

When you must not use it

Do not use FORTEO if:

  • you have previously received FORTEO therapy for a total of 24 months. This total of 24 months therapy may have been made up of several shorter courses of FORTEO. If you are not sure if you have previously received FORTEO, speak to your doctor or pharmacist.
  • you have ever had Paget's disease of the bone, irradiations, open epiphysis, increased alkaline phosphatase)
  • you have an allergy to any medicine containing teriparatide or any of the ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet.
    Some of the symptoms of an allergic reaction may include shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing; swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body; rash, itching or hives on the skin.

Do not use this medicine after the expiry date printed on the pack or if the packaging is torn or shows signs of tampering. If it has expired or is damaged, return it to your pharmacist for disposal.

If you are not sure whether you should start using this medicine, talk to your doctor.

Before you start to use it

You will be required to sign your consent that you understand the 24 month lifetime limit. Keep this consent form as you may need to show this to your doctor in the future. Your pharmacist may also ask to see your consent form.

Tell your doctor if you have allergies to any other medicines, foods, preservatives or dyes.

Tell your doctor if you have or have had any of the following medical conditions:

  • high calcium levels in the blood (pre-existing hypercalceamia). Signs and symptoms of high calcium in the blood may include continuing nausea, vomiting, constipation, low energy, or muscle weakness.
    FORTEO may cause an increase in the amount of calcium in your blood or urine.
  • bone disorders other than osteoporosis (including hyperparathyroidism)
  • high levels of alkaline phosphatase
  • have had radiation therapy
  • calculi or stones (mineral deposits) in the urinary tract
  • low blood pressure
  • * kidney disease.

This medicine should not be used in children or in young adults if their bones have not finished growing (open epiphyses).

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant or are breast-feeding. This medicine may affect your developing baby. It is not known whether this medicine passes into breast milk. Your doctor can discuss with you the risks and benefits involved.

Before you start using FORTEO, tell your doctor about any of the above conditions.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any other medicines, including any that you get without a prescription from your pharmacy, supermarket or health food shop.

Some medicines and FORTEO may interfere with each other, e.g.

  • Diuretics (medicines used to help the kidneys get rid of salt and water by increasing the amount of urine produced, such as hydrochlorothiazide and frusemide)
  • Anti-coagulants (medicines used to prevent blood clotting)
  • Digoxin (medicine used to treat heart failure).

These medicines may be affected by FORTEO or may affect how well it works. You may need different amounts of your medicines or you may need to use different medicines.

You can take calcium or vitamin D supplements (or both) while you are using your medicine. You should discuss with your doctor how much calcium and vitamin D to take each day.

Your doctor and pharmacist have more information on medicines to be careful with or avoid while using this medicine.

How to use FORTEO

Carefully follow all directions given to you by your doctor or health care professional. They may differ from the information contained in this leaflet.

Read the user manual for instructions on how to use the pen. Needles are not included with the pen. You can use Becton Dickinson and Company's pen needles or their equivalent with the pen.

If you do not understand the user manual, ask your doctor or health care professional for help.

How much to use

The usual dose is 20 mcg given once a day.

How to use it

FORTEO is given by injection under the skin (subcutaneous) into the thigh or abdomen.

Your healthcare professional (doctor or nurse) should teach you how to use the FORTEO pen (multidose prefilled delivery device).

It is a good idea to refer to the user manual each time you inject this medicine.

When to use it

You can take FORTEO at any time of day.

To help you remember, use your medicine at about the same time each day. Using it at the same time each day will have the best effect.

How long to use it

The safety and efficacy of FORTEO have not been evaluated beyond 2 years (median treatment is 19 months in postmenopausal women).

Use of the drug for more than 24 months lifetime duration is not recommended.

You will be required to sign your consent that you understand the 24 month lifetime limit.

Continue using your medicine for as long as your doctor tells you.

This medicine helps to control your condition, but does not cure it. It is important to keep using your medicine even if you feel well.

If you forget to use it

Have it as soon as possible on that day. Do not have more than one injection on the same day. Then go back to using your medicine as you would normally.

Do not have double injections to make up for the injection that you missed. This may increase the chance of you having an unwanted side effect.

If you are not sure what to do, ask your doctor or health care professional.

If you have trouble remembering to use your medicine, ask your health care professional for some hints.

If you have too much (overdose)

Immediately telephone your doctor or the Poisons Information Centre (telephone 13 11 26) for advice, or go to Accident and Emergency at the nearest hospital, if you think that you or anyone else may have had too much FORTEO. Do this even if there are no signs of discomfort or poisoning. You may need urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of an overdose may include high blood serum calcium levels, dizziness or light-headedness on standing up. Nausea, vomiting, dizziness and headache may also occur.

While you are using FORTEO

Things you must do

If you are about to be started on any new medicine, remind your doctor and pharmacist that you are using FORTEO.

Tell any other doctors, dentists and health care professionals who treat you that you are using this medicine.

If you are going to have surgery, tell the surgeon or anaesthetist that you are using this medicine. It may affect other medicines used during surgery.

If you become pregnant while using this medicine, tell your doctor immediately.

If you are about to have any blood tests, tell your doctor that you are using this medicine. This medicine can cause small, temporary increases in blood calcium levels. If blood samples are taken, this needs to be done at least 16 hours after the last injection.

Keep all of your doctor's appointments so that your progress can be checked. Your doctor may do some tests (like bone mineral density tests and blood tests) from time to time to make sure the medicine is working and to prevent unwanted side effects.

Things you must not do

Do not use FORTEO to treat any other complaints unless your doctor tells you to.

Do not give or share your medicine with anyone else, even if they have the same condition as you and you have changed the needle.

Do not stop using your medicine without checking with your doctor.

Side effects

Tell your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible if you do not feel well while you are using FORTEO.

This medicine helps most people with osteoporosis, but it may have unwanted side effects in a few people. Most of the side effects are mild.

Ask your doctor or health care professional to answer any questions you may have.

Tell your doctor or health care professional if you notice any of the following and they worry you:

  • Discomfort around the area of injection, such as redness of the skin, pain, swelling, itching, bruising or minor bleeding
  • feeling sick (nausea)
  • leg cramps
  • muscle spasms

If you become dizzy (light-headed) after your injection, you should sit or lie down until you feel better. If you do not feel better, you should call a doctor before you continue treatment.

The above list includes the more common side effects of your medicine.

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you notice anything that is making you feel unwell.

Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some people. Some of these side effects (for example, a high amount of uric acid or calcium levels in the blood) can only be found when your doctor does tests from time to time to check your progress.

Allergic reactions may occur in some people. This may be seen as shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips or tongue, rash, itching or hives on the skin.

After using FORTEO

Storage

Keep your FORTEO pen in the refrigerator where the temperature stays between 2 degrees to 8°C. Do not allow FORTEO to freeze. Do not use FORTEO if it has been frozen.

Keep it where children cannot reach it.

You should have your FORTEO injection shortly after you take the pen out of the refrigerator as described in the user manual. Put the pen back into the refrigerator immediately after you have used it.

You should use a new needle for each injection. Do not store your pen with the needle attached. If you do this, it may allow solution to leak from the pen and air bubbles to form in the cartridge.

Each FORTEO pen can be used for up to 28 days after the first injection. After the 28-day use period, discard the pen even if it contains some unused solution.

FORTEO is a clear and colourless liquid. Do not use if solid particles appear or if the solution is cloudy or coloured.

Disposal

Empty FORTEO pens and any needles should be disposed of in a 'sharps' container or similar puncture proof container composed of hard plastic or glass.

Ask your doctor or nurse where you can dispose of the container once it is full.

If the expiry date on this medicine has passed, ask your pharmacist what to do with any medicine that is left over.

Product description

What it looks like

FORTEO is a clear and colourless liquid. It is supplied in a 2.4mL cartridge contained in a prefilled delivery device (pen) that delivers 20 mcg per dose and contains dosing for 28 treatment days.

FORTEO is available in packs of one.

Ingredients

FORTEO contains 250 mcg/mL of teriparatide as the active ingredient. It also contains:

  • glacial acetic acid
  • sodium acetate
  • mannitol
  • metacresol
  • water for injections
  • hydrochloric acid may have been added to adjust product pH
  • sodium hydroxide may have been added to adjust product pH.

Supplier

FORTEO is a product of:

Eli Lilly Australia Pty Limited
112 Wharf Road
WEST RYDE NSW 2114

® = Registered Trademark

Australian Registration Number:
AUST R 80333

This leaflet was revised in May 2019

Published by MIMS July 2019

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Forteo

Active ingredient

Teriparatide (rbe)

Schedule

S4

 

1 Name of Medicine

Teriparatide (rbe).

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

Teriparatide has a molecular weight of 4117.8 daltons and is identical in sequence to the 34 N-terminal amino acids of the natural human parathyroid hormone.
Forteo is manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company using recombinant DNA technology.

Chemical structure.

The amino acid sequence of teriparatide is shown below:

CAS number.

The CAS number for teriparatide is 52232-67-4.

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Forteo contains 250 microgram teriparatide.
Teriparatide (rbe) injection [recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34), rhPTH (1-34)] is the first in a new class of bone formation agents.
For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

Solution for injection.
Forteo is a sterile, colourless, clear, isotonic solution in prefilled pens.

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Osteoporosis is characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increase in the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. The diagnosis of osteoporosis may be confirmed by the finding of low bone mass or the presence or history of osteoporotic fracture. While non-vertebral fractures are usually clinically apparent, vertebral fractures also may be manifested by back pain, height loss or kyphosis.

Mechanism of action.

Endogenous 84-amino-acid parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the primary regulator of calcium and phosphate metabolism in bone and kidney. Physiological actions of PTH include regulation of bone metabolism, renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and phosphate, and intestinal calcium absorption. The biological actions of PTH and teriparatide are mediated through binding to specific PTH cell surface receptors. Teriparatide is the active fragment (1-34) of endogenous human PTH, manufactured using recombinant DNA technology. Teriparatide binds to these receptors with similar affinity as PTH, and has the same actions in bone and kidney as PTH. Like endogenous PTH, teriparatide is not expected to accumulate in bone or other tissues.

Pharmacodynamic effects.

The skeletal effects of teriparatide depend upon the pattern of systemic exposure. Once-daily administration of teriparatide increases apposition of new bone on trabecular and cortical (endosteal and periosteal) bone surfaces by preferential stimulation of osteoblastic activity over osteoclastic activity. In contrast, continuous excess of endogenous PTH, as occurs in hyperparathyroidism, may be detrimental to the skeleton because bone resorption may be stimulated more than bone formation. In monkey studies, teriparatide improved trabecular microarchitecture and increased bone mass and strength by stimulating new bone formation in both cancellous and cortical bone.
In humans, teriparatide affects calcium and phosphorus metabolism in a pattern consistent with the known actions of endogenous PTH.

Clinical trials.

The clinical program included treatment studies in women and men with osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women were treated for up to 24 months to evaluate effects on vertebral fractures. Men were treated for up to 14 months to evaluate the effect on BMD. Of the women and men who participated in the teriparatide treatment studies, 1930 have been systematically observed for 18 months in a post-treatment follow-up study.

Treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

The pivotal study included 1637 postmenopausal women (mean age 69.5 years). At baseline, ninety percent of the patients had one or more vertebral fractures. All patients received 1000 mg of calcium per day and at least 400 IU of vitamin D per day. Results from a treatment period of up to 24 months (median 19 months), with teriparatide, demonstrate significant anti-fracture efficacy.

Effect on vertebral fractures.

Teriparatide, relative to placebo, given for a median of 19 months, significantly reduced the risk and severity of new vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The relative risk for the incidence of 1 or more new vertebral fractures was reduced by 65% and multiple fractures by 77% with teriparatide treatment (Table 3 includes data on absolute risk reduction). Eleven women would need to be treated with teriparatide for a median of 19 months to prevent one or more new vertebral fractures.

Effect on non-vertebral fractures.

Teriparatide significantly reduced (by 53%) the overall incidence of non-vertebral fragility fractures including wrist, ribs, ankle, humerus, hip, foot, pelvis and others (see Figure 1).

Effect on BMD.

Teriparatide rapidly increased lumbar spine BMD. Significant increases were seen as early as 3 months and continued throughout the treatment period, as shown in Figure 2. After a median treatment period of 19 months, BMD had increased 9% and 4% in the lumbar spine and total hip, respectively, compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Teriparatide was effective regardless of age, baseline rate of bone turnover and baseline BMD.

Effect on back pain.

Teriparatide significantly reduced the incidence and severity of back pain. In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, there was a significant (p = 0.017) 26% reduction in the spontaneous reports of new or worsened back pain compared to placebo.

Effects on height loss.

For the 86 postmenopausal women who experienced vertebral fractures, those treated with teriparatide had significantly less height loss when compared to placebo (p = 0.001).

Bone histology.

The effects of teriparatide on bone histology were evaluated in iliac crest biopsies of 61 postmenopausal women treated for up to 24 months with placebo or teriparatide 20 microgram or 40 microgram per day. The increases in BMD and resistance to fracture achieved with teriparatide occurred without evidence of cellular toxicity or adverse effects on bone architecture or mineralisation. The findings in human bone samples paralleled those seen in preclinical primate studies.

Post-treatment fracture efficacy.

Following treatment with teriparatide, 1262 postmenopausal women from the pivotal trial enrolled in a post-treatment follow-up study. After 18 months, approximately 50% of the women in each former treatment group had begun an approved osteoporosis therapy (not including teriparatide) at the discretion of their physician. All women were offered 1000 mg of calcium per day and at least 400 IU of vitamin D per day.
During a median of 18 months following discontinuation of teriparatide treatment, there was a significant 40% reduction in relative risk for new vertebral fractures in women previously treated with teriparatide, compared to placebo. (The relative risk reduction was similar for women with and without osteoporosis treatment, 41% and 37%, respectively). During the same observation period, there was a 42% risk reduction for nonvertebral fragility fractures in women previously treated with teriparatide, compared with placebo.
Data from this study demonstrate that regardless of the follow-up treatment options, fracture risk was reduced for women previously treated with teriparatide.
A 24-month, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled Phase 4 study included 1,360 postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis. 680 subjects were randomised to Forteo and 680 subjects were randomised to oral risedronate 35 mg/week. At baseline, the women had a mean age of 72.1 years and a median of 2 prevalent vertebral fractures; 57.9% of patients had received previous bisphosphonate therapy and 18.8% took concomitant glucocorticoids during the study. 1,013 (74.5%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up. The mean (median) cumulative dose of glucocorticoid was 474.3 (66.2) mg in the teriparatide arm and 898.0 (100.0) mg in the risedronate arm. The mean (median) vitamin D intake for the teriparatide arm was 1408.4 IU/day (1380.4 IU/day) and for the risedronate arm was 1206.4 IU/day (900 IU/day). For those subjects who had baseline and follow-up spine radiographs, the incidence of new vertebral fractures was 28/516 (5.4%) in Forteo and 64/533 (12.0%) in risedronate-treated patients, relative risk (95% CI) = 0.44 (0.29-0.68), P < 0.0001. The cumulative incidence of pooled clinical fractures (clinical vertebral and non vertebral fractures) was 4.8% in Forteo and 9.8% in risedronate-treated patients, hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.48 (0.32-0.74), P=0.0009.
In an open-label study, 503 postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis and a fragility fracture within the previous 3 years (83% had received previous osteoporosis therapy) were treated with Forteo for up to 24 months. At 24 months, the mean increase from baseline in lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck BMD was 10.5%, 2.6% and 3.9% respectively. The mean increase in BMD from 18 to 24 months was 1.4%, 1.2% and 1.6% at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, respectively.

Male osteoporosis.

The efficacy of teriparatide was demonstrated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 437 men with either hypogonadal or idiopathic osteoporosis. All patients received 1000 mg of calcium per day and at least 400 IU of vitamin D per day and were treated for up to 14 months.
In this study, teriparatide rapidly increased lumbar spine BMD in men, with significant increases as early as 3 months. This increase continued throughout the treatment period, as shown in Figure 3. After a median treatment period of 11 months, BMD in the spine had (on average) increased by 5% and in the hip by 1%, compared to placebo. Increases in BMD were similar in men with hypogonadal or idiopathic osteoporosis. Teriparatide was effective regardless of age, baseline rate of bone turnover and baseline BMD.
All male patients presenting with osteoporosis should be checked for primary or secondary hypogonadism, investigated and treated appropriately as a prerequisite.

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

The efficacy of Forteo in men and women (N=428) receiving sustained systemic glucocorticoid therapy (equivalent to 5 mg or greater of prednisone for at least 3 months) was demonstrated in a 36 month (18-month primary phase plus 18-month continuation phase), randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled study (alendronate 10 mg/day). Twenty-eight percent of patients had one or more radiographic vertebral fractures at baseline. All patients were offered 1000 mg calcium per day and 800 IU vitamin D per day.
This study included postmenopausal women (N=277), premenopausal women (N=67), and men (N=83). At baseline, the postmenopausal women had a mean age of 61 years, mean lumbar spine BMD T score (number of standard deviations above or below the mean in healthy young women) of -2.7, median prednisone equivalent dose of 7.5 mg/day, and 34% had one or more radiographic vertebral fractures; premenopausal women had a mean age of 37 years, mean lumbar spine BMD T score of -2.5, median prednisone equivalent dose of 10 mg/day, and 9% had one or more radiographic vertebral fractures; and men had a mean age of 57 years, mean lumbar spine BMD T score of -2.2, median prednisone equivalent dose of 10 mg/day, and 24% had one or more radiographic vertebral fractures.

Effects on vertebral and non-vertebral BMD.

The primary objective was the change in lumbar spine BMD from baseline to the 18-month endpoint (last observation carried forward) in men and women combined. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the 18-month primary phase. At the 18 month endpoint (men and women combined), Forteo increased lumbar spine BMD (7.2%) significantly more than alendronate (3.4%) (p < 0.001).
Figure 4 shows the time course of mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD through 36 months for men and women combined. There was a significant difference between groups at all measured timepoints and endpoint. At 36 months (Figure 4) the mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD was 11.0% in the Forteo group versus 5.3% in the alendronate group, a difference of 5.7% (p < 0.001).
Table 4 presents the mean percent change in lumbar spine BMD in the women only subgroup.
In men and women combined, changes from baseline in femoral neck BMD were significantly greater in the Forteo compared with the alendronate group at all timepoints and at endpoint (Figure 5). The mean percent change in femoral neck BMD from baseline to endpoint was 5.1% in the Forteo group compared with 2.6% in the alendronate group (p < 0.001).
In men and women combined, changes from baseline in total hip BMD were significantly greater in the Forteo group compared with the alendronate group at all timepoints and at endpoint (Figure 6). The mean increase in total hip BMD from baseline to endpoint was 4.4% in the Forteo group versus 2.2% in the alendronate group (p < 0.001).
In premenopausal women, the increase in BMD from baseline to endpoint at 36 months was significantly greater in the Forteo group compared with the alendronate group at the lumbar spine (4.6% versus -0.9%; p = 0.017) and total hip (4.8% versus 1.5%; p=0.026). However, no significant effect on fracture rates was demonstrated in premenopausal women.

Analysis of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures.

At 18 months, analysis of spinal X-rays from 165 alendronate patients and 171 Forteo patients showed that 10 patients in the alendronate group (6.1%) had experienced a new vertebral fracture compared with 1 patient in the Forteo group (0.6%). In addition, 9 patients in the alendronate group (4.2%) had experienced a nonvertebral fracture compared with 12 patients in the Forteo group (5.6%).
Table 5 summarises the incident fractures at 36 months in men and women combined.

Effects on markers of bone turnover.

In patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, daily administration of Forteo stimulated new bone formation as shown by increases from baseline in the serum concentration of biochemical markers of bone formation including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), procollagen I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), and amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) (see Table 6). Forteo also stimulated bone resorption as shown by increases from baseline in serum concentrations of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Alendronate 10 mg/day induced decreases from baseline in the serum concentration of BSAP, PICP, PINP and CTX (see Table 6). The effects of Forteo on bone turnover markers in patients with glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis were qualitatively similar to the effects in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis not taking glucocorticoids.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

Absorption.

After subcutaneous (SC) injection, teriparatide has an absolute bioavailability of 95% (95% CI 0.824-1.07). Absorption and elimination are rapid. The half-life of teriparatide in serum is 5 minutes when administered by intravenous injection and approximately 1 hour when administered by subcutaneous injection. The longer half-life following subcutaneous administration reflects the time required for absorption from the injection site.
Following a subcutaneous injection of a 20 microgram dose, peak molar concentrations of teriparatide briefly exceed the upper limit of normal for endogenous PTH [65 picogram/mL (7.0 picomolar)] by 4- to 5-fold for about 30 minutes and then decline to non-quantifiable concentrations within 3 hours. The mean systemic exposure (endogenous PTH and teriparatide) over 24 hours does not exceed the upper limit of normal and is below the levels found in patients with mild hyperparathyroidism.

Distribution.

Volume of distribution is approximately 1.7 L/kg. Between-subject variability in systemic clearance and volume of distribution is 25% to 50%.

Metabolism.

No metabolism studies have been performed with teriparatide. However, the mechanisms of metabolism of PTH(1-34) and intact PTH have been extensively described. Metabolism of parathyroid hormone is believed to occur predominantly in liver and kidney.

Excretion.

Teriparatide is eliminated through hepatic and extra-hepatic clearance (approximately 62 L/hr in women and 94 L/hr in men). No excretion studies have been performed with teriparatide. However, the mechanism of elimination of PTH(1-34) and intact PTH have been extensively described.

Patient characteristics.

Geriatrics.

No differences in teriparatide pharmacokinetics were detected with regard to age (range 31 to 85 years). Dosage adjustment based on age is not required.

Gender.

Systemic exposure to teriparatide is approximately 20% to 30% lower in men than in women. There were, however, no gender differences with respect to safety, tolerability or pharmacodynamic responses. Dosage adjustment based on gender is not required.

Renal impairment.

No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic or safety differences were identified in patients with mild, moderate or severe chronic renal impairment administered a single dose of teriparatide. Dosage adjustment, based on renal function, is not required.
However, patients with renal impairment had reduced calcaemic and calciuric responses to teriparatide. Long-term safety and efficacy have not been evaluated in patients with serum creatinine concentrations > 177 micromol/L.

Heart failure.

No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic, blood pressure, pulse rate or other safety differences were identified in patients with stable heart failure (New York Heart Association Class I to III and additional evidence of cardiac dysfunction) administered two 20 microgram doses of teriparatide. Dosage adjustment based on the presence of mild or moderate heart failure is not required. There are no data from patients with severe heart failure.

Hepatic impairment.

Safety and efficacy have not been evaluated in patients with hepatic impairment. Preclinical data indicate that hepatic Kupffer cells are the primary site of metabolism for teriparatide. It is unlikely that disease states in which hepatocyte function is impaired will have a clinically significant effect on systemic exposure to teriparatide.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Genotoxicity.

Teriparatide was not genotoxic in assays for gene mutations (Ames test and mouse lymphoma assay in vitro) and chromosomal damage (Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and the mouse micronucleus test in vivo).

Carcinogenicity.

Two carcinogenicity bioassays were conducted in rats. In the first study, male and female rats were given daily subcutaneous teriparatide injections of 5, 30, or 75 microgram/kg/day for 24 months from 2 months of age. These doses resulted in systemic exposures that were respectively 3, 20, and 60 times higher than the systemic exposure observed in humans following a subcutaneous dose of 20 microgram (based on AUC comparison). Teriparatide treatment resulted in a marked dose-related increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma, a rare malignant bone tumour, in both male and female rats. Osteosarcomas were observed at all doses, occurred after 17 to 20 months of treatment, and reached an incidence of 38% to 52% in the high-dose groups. Teriparatide also caused increased incidences of osteoblastoma and osteoma in both sexes. No osteosarcomas, osteoblastomas or osteomas were observed in untreated control rats. The bone tumours in rats occurred in association with a large increase in bone mass and focal osteoblast hyperplasia.
The second 2-year study was carried out in order to determine the effect of treatment duration and animal age on the development of bone tumours. Female rats were treated for different periods between 2 and 26 months of age with subcutaneous doses of 5 and 30 microgram/kg (equivalent to 3 and 20 times the human exposure at the 20 microgram dose, based on AUC). The study showed that the occurrence of osteosarcoma, osteoblastoma and osteoma was dependent upon dose and duration of exposure. Bone tumours were observed when immature 2 month old rats were treated with 30 microgram/kg/day for 6 or 24 months. Bone tumours were also observed when mature 6-month old rats were treated with 30 microgram/kg/day for 6 or 20 months. Tumours were not detected when mature 6-month old rats were treated with 5 microgram/kg/day for 6 or 20 months. The results did not demonstrate a difference in susceptibility to bone tumour formation, associated with teriparatide treatment, between mature and immature rats. The relevance of these rat findings to humans is uncertain.
No bone neoplasms or preneoplastic lesions were found in monkeys treated with teriparatide SC for 18 months, and then observed for a further 3 years, at a dose yielding 5-fold clinical exposure levels (based on AUC data).

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Forteo is indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and the treatment of primary osteoporosis in men when other agents are considered unsuitable and when there is a high risk of fractures.
Forteo is indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis associated with sustained systemic glucocorticoid therapy in women and men at high risk for fracture.

4.3 Contraindications

Forteo should not be given to patients with hypersensitivity to teriparatide or to any of its excipients.
Paget's disease of the bone.

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

Potential risk of osteosarcoma.

In male and female rats, teriparatide caused an increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma (a malignant bone tumour) that was dependent on dose and treatment duration. The effect was observed at systemic exposures to teriparatide ranging from 3 to 60 times the exposure in humans given a 20 microgram dose.
However no increased risk was identified in a study in which 30 monkeys were treated with teriparatide for 18 months and then observed for a further 3 years. Post marketing data in humans has not identified an increased risk.
To minimise the potential risk of osteosarcoma (seen in the life-time rat studies):
1. the maximum lifetime exposure to Forteo for an individual patient is 24 months;
2. teriparatide should not be prescribed to patients where there is an increased background risk of osteosarcoma (Paget's disease of bone, prior radiation therapy involving the skeleton, open epiphysis, unexplained elevations of alkaline phosphatase) (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use; Section 5.3 Preclinical Safety Data, Carcinogenicity).
Forteo should be prescribed to patients with a full explanation and their informed consent on the lifetime duration of 24 months treatment.

Information for patients.

For safe and effective use of Forteo, the physician should inform the patient on the following:

General.

Patients will need to read the Consumer Medicine Information leaflet and pen User Manual before starting therapy with Forteo and re-read them each time the prescription is renewed.

Osteosarcoma in rats.

Patients should be made aware that Forteo caused osteosarcoma in rats and that the clinical relevance of these findings is unknown.

Consent form.

Use of Forteo is restricted to 24 months lifetime duration.

Hypercalcaemia.

Forteo has not been studied in patients with preexisting hypercalcaemia. These patients should be excluded from treatment with Forteo because of the possibility of exacerbating hypercalcaemia. In normocalcaemic patients, slight and transient elevations of serum calcium concentrations have been observed following teriparatide injection. Serum calcium concentrations reach a maximum between 4 and 6 hours and return to baseline by 16 to 24 hours after each dose of teriparatide. Routine calcium monitoring during therapy is not required.

Bone disorders other than osteoporosis.

Patients with metabolic bone diseases other than primary osteoporosis (including hyperparathyroidism and Paget's disease of the bone) (see Section 4.3 Contraindications) and those with otherwise unexplained elevations of alkaline phosphatase, should generally be excluded from treatment with Forteo. Patients with skeletal malignancies or bone metastases should also be excluded from treatment with Forteo.

Urolithiasis.

Forteo has not been studied in patients with active urolithiasis. Forteo should be used with caution in patients with active or recent urolithiasis because of the potential to exacerbate this condition.

Hypotension.

In short-term clinical studies with Forteo, isolated episodes of transient orthostatic hypotension were observed. Typically, an event began within 4 hours of dosing and spontaneously resolved within a few minutes to a few hours. When transient orthostatic hypotension occurred, it happened within the first several doses, was relieved by placing subjects in a reclining position and did not preclude continued treatment.

Use in the elderly.

No differences in Forteo pharmacokinetics were detected with regard to age (range 31 to 85 years). Dosage adjustment based on age is not required.

Paediatric use.

Forteo has not been studied in paediatric populations. Forteo should not be used in paediatric patients or young adults with open epiphyses.

Effects on laboratory tests.

Serum calcium.

Forteo transiently increases serum calcium, with the maximal effect observed at approximately 4 to 6 hours post-dose. By 16 hours post-dose, serum calcium generally has returned to, or near, baseline. These effects should be kept in mind because serum calcium concentrations observed within 16 hours after a dose may reflect the pharmacologic effect of teriparatide. Persistent hypercalcaemia was not observed in clinical trials with Forteo. If persistent hypercalcaemia is detected, treatment with Forteo should be discontinued pending further evaluation of the cause of hypercalcaemia. Patients known to have an underlying hypercalcaemic disorder, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, should not be treated with Forteo (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Hypercalcaemia).
Teriparatide has not been studied in non-ambulant patients, thus monitoring of serum calcium may be appropriate when a previously ambulant patient is confined to bed.

Urinary calcium.

Forteo may cause small increases in urinary calcium excretion. However, in the clinical trials, the incidence of hypercalciuria in Forteo patients did not differ from that in the placebo-treated patients.

Renal function.

No significant adverse renal effects were observed in long-term clinical studies. Assessments included creatinine clearance, measurements of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and electrolytes in serum, urine specific gravity and pH and examination of urine sediment. Long-term evaluation of patients with severe renal insufficiency, patients undergoing acute or chronic dialysis, or patients who have a functioning renal transplant has not been performed.

Serum uric acid.

Forteo may cause small increases in serum uric acid concentrations. In clinical trials, 2.8% of Forteo patients had an elevated serum uric acid concentration compared to 0.7% of placebo patients. However, the hyperuricaemia did not result in an increase in gout, urolithiasis or arthralgia.

Anti-PTH antibody formation.

Anti-PTH antibodies, while apparently clinically irrelevant and only occurring in a small number of treated individuals, have the potential to interfere with serum PTH estimations.

PTH receptors.

As is generally known, PTH/PTH-related peptide receptors are on multiple tissues. There was no increase in non-osseous tumours in the two 24-month (lifetime) rat studies and in the two 18-month primate studies. There was no increase in incidence of any specific cancer or cancer overall in 2074 patients in long-term clinical studies or in follow-up studies conducted in a number of these patients for a median of 18 months after teriparatide treatment. Osteosarcoma is a very rare cancer that occurs in 4 out of every million people each year. None of the patients in the clinical trials or post-treatment follow-up developed osteosarcomas.

Other.

New or worsened spinal stenosis was observed in 2 (0.3%) patients who received placebo, 3 (0.4%) patients who received teriparatide 20 microgram, and 3 (0.4%) patients who received teriparatide 40 microgram. One patient who received teriparatide 20 microgram had worsening conductive hearing loss. One patient who received teriparatide 40 microgram required removal of a bone spur and another patient receiving teriparatide 40 microgram required surgical removal of a hyperostosis.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

No clinically relevant drug interactions have been identified in studies administering teriparatide 40 microgram (twice the recommended dose of Forteo).

Hydrochlorothiazide.

In a study of healthy subjects, the co-administration of 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide with teriparatide did not affect the serum calcium response to teriparatide 40 microgram. The 24 hour urine excretion of calcium was reduced by a clinically insignificant amount (15%).

Frusemide.

In a study of healthy subjects and patients with mild, moderate and severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance 13 to 72 mL/minute), co-administration of intravenous frusemide (20 to 100 mg) with teriparatide 40 microgram resulted in small, clinically insignificant increases in serum calcium (2%) and in 24-hour urine calcium (37%).

Calcium channel antagonists.

In a study of women with hypertension treated with an extended release preparation of either diltiazem, nifedipine or felodipine, the blood pressure observed after injection of teriparatide 40 microgram was similar when administered alone or in combination with the long-acting calcium channel antagonists.

Atenolol.

In a study of women with hypertension treated with atenolol, the blood pressure observed after injection of teriparatide 40 microgram was similar when administered alone or in combination with atenolol.

Digoxin.

In a study of 15 healthy people administered digoxin daily to steady state, a single Forteo dose did not alter the effect of digoxin on the systolic time interval (from electrocardiographic Q-wave onset to aortic valve closure, a measure of digoxin's calcium-mediated cardiac effect). However, sporadic case reports have suggested that hypercalcaemia may predispose patients to digitalis toxicity. Because Forteo transiently increases serum calcium, Forteo should be used with caution in patients taking digoxin.

Raloxifene.

In a study of healthy postmenopausal women, the co-administration of raloxifene with teriparatide 40 microgram did not alter the effects of teriparatide on serum or urine calcium or on clinical adverse events.

Anti-coagulants.

While this has not been studied, co-administration of anti-coagulants would not be expected to alter the effects of teriparatide. Patients co-administering anti-coagulants and teriparatide need to be advised to take appropriate precautions against the formation of haematomas at the injection sites.

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

Teriparatide had no adverse effects on fertility of male or female rats at doses up to 300 microgram/kg/day SC (about 120 times the human dose based on body surface area). In juvenile rats, treatment with teriparatide was associated with degeneration of the testes at doses ≥ 10 microgram/kg/day SC (about 4 times the human dose based on body surface area). Teriparatide should not be used in paediatric patients or young adults (also see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
(Category B3)
In pregnant rats given subcutaneous teriparatide doses up to 1000 microgram/kg/day, there were no findings. In pregnant mice given subcutaneous doses of ≥ 30 microgram/kg/day (6 times the human dose based on body surface area) from gestation Day 6 through 15, the foetuses showed an increased incidence of skeletal deviations or variations (interrupted rib, extra vertebra or rib).
Developmental effects in a perinatal/postnatal study in pregnant rats given subcutaneous doses of teriparatide from gestation Day 6 through postpartum Day 20 included mild growth retardation in female offspring at doses of 225 microgram/kg/day (approximately 95 times the human dose based on BSA) and in male offspring at 1000 microgram/kg/day (420 times the human dose based on BSA). There was also reduced motor activity in both male and female offspring at 1000 microgram/kg/day. There were no developmental or reproductive effects in rats at a dose of 30 microgram/kg (12 times the human dose based on BSA).
The effects of teriparatide on the human foetus have not been studied. Forteo should not be used in pregnant women. Women of childbearing potential should use effective methods of contraception during use of Forteo. If pregnancy occurs Forteo should be discontinued.
It is not known whether teriparatide is excreted in human milk. Forteo should not be administered to women who are breast-feeding their children.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.
The safety of teriparatide has been evaluated in 21 clinical trials in over 2800 women and men. Four long-term, Phase 3 clinical trials included one large placebo-controlled, double-blind multinational trial with 1637 postmenopausal women, one placebo-controlled, double-blind multinational trial with 437 men and two active-controlled trials including 393 postmenopausal women. Teriparatide doses ranged from 5 to 100 microgram/day in short-term trials and 20 to 40 microgram/day in the long-term trials. A total of 1970 of the patients studied received teriparatide, including 738 patients at 20 microgram/day and 1107 patients at 40 microgram/day. In the long-term clinical trials, 1137 patients were exposed to teriparatide for greater than 1 year (500 at 20 microgram/day and 637 at 40 microgram/day). The maximum exposure duration to teriparatide was 2 years. Adverse events associated with Forteo were usually mild and generally did not require discontinuation of therapy.
In the two Phase 3, placebo-controlled clinical trials in men and postmenopausal women, early discontinuation due to an adverse event occurred in 5.6% of patients on placebo and 7.1% of patients on Forteo. Adverse events considered to be related to Forteo therapy were nausea and leg cramps.
Table 1 lists adverse events occurring in the Phase 3, placebo-controlled clinical trials in postmenopausal women and in men at a frequency ≥ 2.0% in the Forteo groups and in more Forteo treated patients than in placebo-treated patients. Adverse events are shown without attributing causality.

Immunogenicity.

In a large clinical trial, antibodies that cross-reacted with teriparatide were detected in 2.8% of female patients receiving Forteo. Generally, antibodies were first detected following 12 months of treatment and diminished after withdrawal of therapy. There were no hypersensitivity reactions, allergic reactions, effects on serum calcium or effects on BMD response, which indicates that the antibodies did not cause any clinically significant adverse effects.

Spontaneous data.

Table 2 of adverse reactions is based on post-marketing spontaneous reports since market introduction. The following convention has been used for the classification of the adverse reactions: very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100, < 1/10), uncommon (> 1/1000, < 1/100), rare (> 1/10,000, < 1/1000), very rare (< 1/10,000).
There has been a report of metastatic osteosarcoma with subsequent fatal outcome in a 72 year old woman with osteoporosis and low back pain who had received teriparatide for 14 months prior to presentation. Causality cannot be established on the basis of this single case and a surveillance program continues. Osteosarcoma occurs at a rate of approximately 4 in one million per year (1 in 250,000 per year) in the general population over 60 years old and at the same rate in women over the age of 70 years. At present it is not known if humans treated with Forteo have an increased risk of osteosarcoma. However post marketing data in humans has not identified an increased risk.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

The recommended dose of Forteo is 20 microgram administered once daily by subcutaneous injection in the thigh or abdomen.
Based on clinical experience, treatment with Forteo is recommended for a lifetime duration of 24 months treatment (for post-treatment efficacy, see Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties, Clinical trials). Forteo should be prescribed to patients with a full explanation and their informed consent on the lifetime duration of 24 months treatment.
Calcium and vitamin D supplements are advised in patients with a low dietary intake of these nutrients.

Use in males.

Primary or secondary hypogonadism should first be excluded and, if relevant, be treated (see Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties, Clinical trials).

Instructions for use/handling.

To prevent the possible transmission of disease, each pen must be used by one patient only, even if the needle is changed.
Following cessation of Forteo therapy, patients may be continued on other osteoporosis therapies.
The pen delivers 20 microgram per dose and contains dosing for 28 treatment days. Patients must be educated to use the proper injection techniques. Please refer to the User Manual for instructions for the pen.
Forteo is a clear and colourless liquid. Do not use if solid particles appear or if the solution is cloudy or coloured. The Forteo pen should not be used after the stated expiration date.
Data are not available on the safety or efficacy of intravenous or intramuscular injection of Forteo.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

Forteo has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Transient, orthostatic hypotension or dizziness was observed in some patients. These patients should refrain from driving or the use of machines until symptoms have subsided.

4.9 Overdose

No cases of overdose were reported during clinical trials. Teriparatide has been safely administered in single doses of up to 100 microgram. In a clinical study, doses of 60 microgram/day for 6 weeks were safely tolerated. The effects of overdose that might be expected include delayed hypercalcaemia and risk of orthostatic hypotension. Nausea, vomiting, dizziness and headache might also occur.
In postmarketing spontaneous reports, there have been cases of medication error in which the entire contents (up to 800 microgram) of the teriparatide pen have been administered as a single dose. Transient events reported have included nausea, weakness/ lethargy and hypotension. In some cases, no adverse events occurred as a result of the overdose. No fatalities associated with overdose have been reported.
In single-dose rodent studies using subcutaneous injection of teriparatide, no mortality was seen in rats given doses of 1000 microgram/kg (526 times the human dose based on body surface area) or in mice given 10,000 microgram/kg (2635 times the human dose).

Overdose management.

There is no specific antidote for teriparatide. Treatment of suspected overdose should include discontinuation of teriparatide, monitoring of serum calcium, and implementation of appropriate supportive measures, such as hydration.
For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 (Australia).

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

S4.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

Glacial acetic acid; Sodium acetate; Mannitol; Metacresol; Water for injections; Hydrochloric acid solution 10% and/or sodium hydroxide solution 10% (for pH adjustment).

6.2 Incompatibilities

Incompatibilities were either not assessed or not identified as part of the registration of this medicine.

6.3 Shelf Life

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the packaging.
Each Forteo pen can be used for up to 28 days after the first injection.

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

Store at 2° to 8°C. Refrigerate. Do not freeze.
The dose may be delivered immediately following removal from the refrigerator. Do not allow Forteo to freeze. Do not use Forteo if it has been frozen. During the use period, minimise the time the pen remains out of the refrigerator.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

Forteo is supplied as a 1 x 2.4 mL in a 3 mL prefilled cartridge [pen].
Forteo is available in packs of one 250 microgram/mL pen.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste should be disposed of by taking it to your local pharmacy.

Summary Table of Changes