Consumer medicine information

Neupogen

Filgrastim

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Neupogen Single dose vial

Active ingredient

Filgrastim

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Neupogen.

What is in this leaflet

  • What is in this leaflet
  • What Neupogen is used for
  • How it works
  • Before you use it
    When you must not use it
    Before you start to use it
    Taking other medicine
  • How to use it
    How much to inject
    Where to inject
    How long to use it
    Things to do before you inject
    How to prepare your injection - NEUPOGEN Syringe
    How to prepare your injection - NEUPOGEN Vial
    How to inject
    If you forget your injection
    If you inject too much (overdose)
  • While you are using it
    Things you must do
    Things you must not do
  • Side effects
  • After using it
    Storage
    Disposal
  • Product description
    What it looks like
    Ingredients
    Sponsor

This leaflet answers some common questions about NEUPOGEN. It does not contain all the available information.

It does not take the place of talking to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has prescribed NEUPOGEN after considering its likely benefit to you, as well as the potential risks.

If you have any concerns about taking this medicine, talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Keep this leaflet with your medicine.

You may need to read this information again.

What Neupogen is used for

Your doctor may have prescribed NEUPOGEN because:

  1. You are receiving chemotherapy for cancer
    Unfortunately, some chemotherapy will reduce the number of neutrophils in your body. Although NEUPOGEN is not a treatment for cancer, it does help the body to make new neutrophils. This will reduce your chance of developing infections that might require antibiotics and/or hospital stays. It may even increase your chance of receiving your chemotherapy on time and at the right dose.
  2. You are receiving a bone marrow or stem cell transplant
    Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and arise from special 'parent' cells, called stem cells. Some chemotherapy has toxic effects on bone marrow, so your doctor may choose to collect stem cells from your bone marrow or blood - or from a donor's bone marrow or blood - before you receive your chemotherapy. These collected stem cells are then stored and may be given back to you later, to replace those lost during chemotherapy. This procedure is called a bone marrow or stem cell transplant.
    There are normally only a small number of stem cells in your blood. NEUPOGEN is typically used to increase this number before stem cell collection. You may also receive NEUPOGEN after a bone marrow or stem cell transplant, to help speed up your recovery.
  3. You are donating stem cells for another person
    If you are aged between 16 and 60 years and have volunteered to donate your stem cells for another person, NEUPOGEN may be used to increase the number of stem cells in your blood before they are collected. Your stem cells can then be given to a patient after he/she has received their chemotherapy.
  4. You are suffering from severe chronic neutropenia
    Severe chronic neutropenia is a disease in which the body does not make enough neutrophils, increasing your risk of fever and/or infection. NEUPOGEN helps the body to make and maintain the right number of infection-fighting neutrophils. This decreases the risk of infection and the need for antibiotics and/or hospital stays.
  5. You are receiving medicines for HIV infection
    Some medicines used to treat HIV (Human Immuno-deficiency Virus) infection, or its complications, can reduce the number of infection-fighting neutrophils in your blood. Your doctor may prescribe NEUPOGEN if the number of neutrophils falls too low.
    By boosting your neutrophil count, NEUPOGEN will improve your body's ability to fight infection and may increase your chance of receiving the full dose of some of your HIV medicines. NEUPOGEN is not a treatment for HIV infection.

How it works

NEUPOGEN is a copy of a substance normally present in your body, called Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor or G-CSF. Using gene technology, NEUPOGEN is produced in a specific type of bacteria, called E. coli.

G-CSF is produced in the bone marrow and assists in the production of neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cell. Neutrophils help the body fight infections by surrounding and destroying the bacteria that cause them. G-CSF also helps neutrophils to do this work better.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you.

This medicine is available only with a doctor's prescription.

Before you use it

When you must not use it

Do not have NEUPOGEN if you have an allergy to:

  • any medicine containing Filgrastim
  • any of the ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet
  • any medicines or products that are produced using the bacteria E. coli.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include:

  • shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing
  • swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body
  • skin rash, itching or hives.

Do not use NEUPOGEN at the same time as your chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Do not use NEUPOGEN in the 24 hours before or after you receive your chemotherapy, radiotherapy, bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplant.

This is because these types of treatments may stop NEUPOGEN from increasing the number of infection-fighting neutrophils.

Do not use NEUPOGEN after the expiry date (EXP) printed on the pack.

Do not use NEUPOGEN if the packaging is torn or shows signs of tampering.

Do not use NEUPOGEN if it has been left out of the refrigerator for more than three days.

If you are not sure whether you should use NEUPOGEN, talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Before you start to use it

Tell your doctor if:

  1. you have allergies to:
  • any other medicines
  • any other substances, such as foods, preservatives or dyes.
  1. you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant.
  2. you are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed.
  3. you have or have had:
  • a medical condition affecting the bone marrow or blood
  • a family history of a genetic disorder
  • sickle cell disease
  • problems with your kidneys, liver, heart or other organs
  • previous treatment for cancer
  • any infections, cancers or tumours.

If you have not told your doctor about any of the above, tell them before you use NEUPOGEN.

There is limited experience with the use of NEUPOGEN in children. Your doctor will discuss the risks and benefits of using it in children.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, particularly those that may affect the blood. Also tell them about any medicines you buy without a prescription from your pharmacy, supermarket or health food shop.

How to use it

NEUPOGEN is given by injection, usually into the tissues just below the skin. This is called a subcutaneous injection.

Your doctor, nurse or pharmacist may suggest that you or your carer be taught how to give a subcutaneous injection. This will allow you to have your NEUPOGEN injection at home.

NEUPOGEN is sometimes given by injection into a vein. This is called an intravenous injection and is given by a doctor or nurse.

Carefully follow all directions given to you by your doctor, pharmacist or nurse.

They may differ from the information in this leaflet.

If you do not understand the instructions, ask your doctor, nurse or pharmacist for help.

How much to inject

Your doctor will tell you the strength of NEUPOGEN you need and how much you require. How much you need will depend on the reason for your treatment, your body weight and the number of neutrophils in your blood.

For NEUPOGEN to work properly, you have to use it exactly as your doctor has instructed.

Where to inject

The best injection sites are:

  • your abdomen, except for the area around the navel (belly button) or
  • the front or side of your thighs.

The sites are shown in the picture below.

Change the injection site each time you inject to avoid soreness at any one site.

When to inject

For best results, you should inject NEUPOGEN at about the same time each day.

Your doctor will tell you when to begin your treatment and when to stop.

How long to use it

Patients receiving chemotherapy or who have received a bone marrow or stem cell transplant
are only required to use NEUPOGEN for short periods of time until the number of infection-fighting neutrophils are restored (usually 1 to 3 weeks).

Stem cell donors
should receive NEUPOGEN treatment for 4 to 5 days.

Patients with severe chronic neutropenia
are required to use NEUPOGEN regularly and for a long period of time, to keep the number of infection-fighting neutrophils at a normal level.

Patients with HIV infection
need to use NEUPOGEN daily until their neutrophil numbers are normal. Usually, the dose is then reduced to three injections per week to maintain the neutrophil numbers.

Your doctor will tell you how many injections you need each week and on which days they should be given.

Things to do before you inject

Make sure that you have all the materials you need for your injection:

  • a new NEUPOGEN syringe or vial
  • a syringe and needle if using a NEUPOGEN vial
  • an alcohol swab
  • a puncture-resistant sharps container.

Follow these instructions exactly to help avoid contamination and possible infection.

If you are unsure, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

  1. Find a clean, flat working surface, such as a table, where you can inject undisturbed.
  2. Remove the syringe or vial from the refrigerator.
    For a more comfortable injection, leave at room temperature for approximately 30 minutes.
    Do not warm NEUPOGEN in any other way (e.g. do not warm it in the microwave or in hot water).
  3. Check that the syringe or vial has NOT been used before.
  4. Do not shake the syringe or vial. If the NEUPOGEN solution appears frothy or bubbly, allow the syringe or vial to sit undisturbed for a few minutes to reduce the froth or bubbles before measuring your dose.
  5. Do not remove the needle cover until you are ready to inject.
  6. Check the expiry date on the label. Do not use if the date has passed the last day of the month shown.
  7. Check the appearance of the solution. The solution should be clear and colourless. If it is cloudy, coloured or if there are clumps or flakes, you must not use it.
  8. Wash and dry your hands thoroughly.

How to prepare your injection - NEUPOGEN Syringe

  1. Hold the syringe vertically with the needle pointing up - this helps reduce the amount of medicine that may leak out of the needle.
    Carefully remove the needle cover, taking care not to touch the exposed needle.
  2. Check the dose (in mL) that your doctor has prescribed and locate the correct volume mark on the syringe barrel.
    Carefully push the plunger until the grey upper edge of the plunger reaches the correct volume mark. This will push the air and any excess liquid out of the syringe.
  3. Double-check that you have the correct dose.

How to prepare your injection - NEUPOGEN Vial

  1. Check that the syringe you are using is marked every tenth of a mL/cc (i.e. 0.1, 0.2, etc. mL/cc) so that you can accurately inject the prescribed dose.
    Use disposable syringes and needles and use them once only.
  2. Flip the protective cap off the vial. Do not remove the rubber stopper.
  3. Wipe the top of the rubber stopper with an alcohol swab.
  4. With the needle cover on, carefully pull back on the plunger. This will draw air into the syringe. The amount of air should be the same as your NEUPOGEN dose.
  5. Carefully remove the needle cover, taking care not to touch the exposed needle.
  6. Gently push the needle through the rubber top of the NEUPOGEN vial.
  7. Carefully push the plunger down. The air injected into the vial will allow NEUPOGEN to be easily withdrawn from the vial into the syringe.
  8. Turn the vial and syringe upside down. Make sure the tip of the needle is IN the solution.
    Slowly pull back on the plunger to draw the correct dose of NEUPOGEN into the syringe.
  9. Check the syringe for air bubbles. The air is harmless, but a large air bubble will reduce the NEUPOGEN dose.
    To remove the air bubbles, gently push the solution back into the vial and measure the correct dose of NEUPOGEN.
  10. Check that the correct dose of NEUPOGEN has been drawn into the syringe.
    Remove the needle from the vial.

How to inject

  1. Clean the site where the injection is to be made with an alcohol swab, moving the alcohol swab in an expanding circle and allow the site to dry.
  1. Pinch a large area of skin between your thumb and forefinger, to create a firm injection site.
  1. Pick up the syringe and hold it as you would a pencil.
  2. Insert the needle directly into the skin (at an angle of between 45° and 90° or as advised by your doctor, nurse or pharmacist).
  1. Inject the NEUPOGEN by gently pushing the plunger all the way in.
  2. Withdraw the needle and using the alcohol swab apply pressure for several minutes to the injection site.
  3. Do not put the needle cover back on the used syringe. You cannot reuse the syringe.
  4. Discard the used syringe into an approved, puncture-resistant, sharps container.

If you are using NEUPOGEN vials, dispose of the used vial in the rubbish.

Do not change the dose or the way you inject NEUPOGEN without consulting your doctor. Always follow your doctor's instructions.

If you forget your injection

If you miss your scheduled dose, inject it as soon as you can - provided that it is still on the same day.

If you miss a whole day before you remember to inject yourself, do not take a 'catch-up' dose or increase your next dose.

Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist as soon as possible about the missed dose.

If you inject too much (overdose)

If you inject more than the dose recommended by your doctor talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist immediately.

Too much NEUPOGEN may lead to neutrophil levels that are too high. Research has shown that doses almost 15 times greater than the most common dose do not immediately result in any harmful effects.

While you are using it

Things you must do

Watch for any signs or symptoms of infection.

There are many ways an infection may show itself.

Symptoms of an infection include:

  • fever (a temperature of 38.2°C or greater, or as your doctor suggests)
  • chills
  • rash
  • sore throat
  • diarrhoea
  • earache
  • difficult or painful breathing, coughing or wheezing.

Go straight to your hospital if you develop any of these symptoms.

If you are about to be started on any new medicine, tell your doctor, nurse and pharmacist that you are using NEUPOGEN.

Tell any other doctors, dentists and pharmacists who treat you that you are using this medicine.

If you become pregnant during treatment with NEUPOGEN, tell your doctor immediately.

Keep all of your doctor's appointment so that your health can be monitored.

Treatment with NEUPOGEN leads to changes in the numbers of certain blood cells.

Your doctor may order blood tests to check the levels of infection-fighting neutrophils and other blood cells.

Blood tests may also be undertaken after you have completed your NEUPOGEN treatment until your blood cells have returned to normal levels.

Things you must not do

Do not use NEUPOGEN to treat any other complaints unless your doctor tells you to.

Do not give NEUPOGEN to anyone else, even if they have the same condition as you.

Side effects

Tell your doctor, nurse or pharmacist as soon as possible if you have any problems while using NEUPOGEN, even if you do not think the problems are connected with the medicine or are not listed in this leaflet.

All medicines can have side effects. Some side effects may be serious and need medical attention. Other side effects are minor and are likely to be temporary. You may also experience side effects caused by other medicines you are taking at the same time as NEUPOGEN.

Do not be alarmed by this list of possible side effects. You may not experience any of these side effects.

Ask your doctor, nurse or pharmacist to answer any questions you may have.

Tell your doctor if you notice any of the following and they worry you. Some of these are known side effects of chemotherapy and may not be related to NEUPOGEN:

  • temporary bone pain, such as in the lower back or in the long bones of the arms or legs
    This pain is usually relieved with non-prescription painkillers, like paracetamol. If you continue to have bone pain even after having taken this form of pain relief, you should speak to your doctor, as you may need a prescription medicine.
  • abdominal discomfort
  • bleeding or bruising more than usual, severe nose bleeds
  • reddish or purplish blotches under the skin
  • cough, breathlessness
  • diarrhoea
  • hair loss
  • headache
  • painful and swollen joints
  • worsening of existing arthritis
  • muscle pain
  • redness, swelling or itching at the site of injection
  • skin disorders - worsening of existing symptoms
  • skin rash or red, itchy spots
  • sore mouth, mouth ulcers
  • tiredness, looking pale.

Tell your doctor immediately if you notice any of the following:

  • pain in the upper left side of the stomach (abdomen)
  • left shoulder pain
  • dizziness
  • fever and painful skin lesions, often painful, most commonly on your arms, legs and sometimes on your face and neck
  • blood in the urine.

The above list includes serious side effects that may require medical attention.

Tell your doctor immediately, or go to Accident and Emergency at your nearest hospital if you notice any of the following:

  • breathing problems such as shortness of breath, rapid breathing
  • fever
  • swelling or puffiness
  • less frequent urination
  • swelling of your stomach-area (abdomen) and feeling of fullness
  • general feeling of tiredness.

These may be serious side effects of NEUPOGEN. You may need urgent medical attention.

Serious side effects are rare or uncommon.

If any of the following happen, stop taking NEUPOGEN and go straight to hospital, as you may need urgent medical attention:

  • rash over a large area of the body, itching or hives
  • shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing
  • swelling of the face, lips, tongue or others parts of the body
  • faintness
  • rapid pulse or sweating.

These are very serious side effects. If you have them you may have had a serious allergic reaction to NEUPOGEN. You may need urgent medical attention or hospitalisation.

Tell your doctor if you notice anything that worries you or that is making you feel unwell.

Other side effects not listed above may occur in some people.

After using it

Storage

Keep NEUPOGEN in a refrigerator at a temperature of 2°C to 8°C.

Exposure to freezing temperatures will not harm NEUPOGEN.

Exposure to room temperature of up to 3 days will not harm NEUPOGEN.

Keep your medicine in its pack until it is time to use it. Protect it from light.

Keep it where children cannot it.

Disposal

Once you have injected NEUPOGEN, do not put the needle cover back on the used syringe.

Discard the used syringe into an approved, puncture-resistant sharps container and keep it out of the reach of children.

Never put the used syringes into your normal household rubbish bin.

Dispose of the full puncture-resistant sharps container as instructed by your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Dispose of the used vial in the rubbish or as directed by your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Product description

What it looks like

NEUPOGEN is a clear, colourless solution. It is supplied in pre-filled syringes or vials.

The syringes and vials are packed in cartons of 10 and are available in the following strengths:

  • 300 micrograms of filgrastim in a volume of 0.5 mL, in a syringe;
  • 480 micrograms of filgrastim in a volume of 0.5 mL, in a syringe;
  • 300 micrograms of filgrastim in a volume of 1 mL, in a vial; and
  • 480 micrograms of filgrastim in a volume of 1.6 mL, in a vial.

Ingredients

Active ingredient : filgrastim (rbe).

Inactive ingredients:

  • sodium acetate
  • sorbitol
  • polysorbate 80
  • Water for Injections.

The needle cover on the pre-filled syringe contains a derivative of latex.

NEUPOGEN does not contain lactose, gluten, tartrazine or any other azo dyes.

Sponsor

Amgen Australia Pty Ltd
ABN 31 051 057 428
Level 7, 123 Epping Road,
North Ryde NSW 2113

This leaflet was prepared in May 2015.

Australian Registration Numbers:
300 mcg/0.5 mL syringe AUST R 53580
480 mcg/0.5 mL syringe AUST R 53581
300 mcg/1 mL vial AUST R 53579
480 mcg/1.6 mL vial AUST R 53577

® Registered trademark.

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Neupogen Single dose vial

Active ingredient

Filgrastim

Schedule

S4

 

1 Name of Medicine

Neupogen is the Amgen Inc. trademark for filgrastim (rbe), a recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony stimulating factor.

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

Chemical structure.

Neupogen (filgrastim) is a 175 amino acid protein manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. Neupogen is produced by Escherichia coli bacteria into which has been inserted the human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) gene. It has a molecular weight of 18,800 daltons. Neupogen is unglycosylated and contains an N-terminal methionine necessary for expression in E. coli.
The specific activity of Neupogen by in vitro proliferative cell assay is 1 x 108 IU/mg when assayed against the WHO international standard for granulocyte colony stimulating factor, 88/502. The clinical significance of this in vitro potency assignment is unknown.

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Neupogen is available in single use prefilled syringes and vials. The single use prefilled syringes contain either 300 microgram or 480 microgram filgrastim at a fill volume of 0.5 mL. The single use vials contain either 300 microgram or 480 microgram filgrastim at a fill volume of 1.0 mL or 1.6 mL, respectively.
For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

Neupogen is a sterile, clear, colourless, preservative-free liquid for parenteral administration.

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Mechanism of action.

Colony stimulating factors are glycoproteins which act on haemopoietic cells by binding to specific cell surface receptors and stimulating proliferation, differentiation commitment, and some end cell functional activation.
Endogenous filgrastim is a lineage specific colony stimulating factor with selectivity for the neutrophil lineage. Filgrastim is not species specific and has been shown to primarily affect neutrophil progenitor proliferation, differentiation and selected end cell functional activation (including enhanced phagocytic ability, priming of the cellular metabolism associated with respiratory burst, antibody dependent killing and the increased expression of some functions associated with cell surface antigens).

Clinical trials.

Cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

In all clinical studies, administration of Neupogen resulted in a dose dependent rise in neutrophil counts. Following termination of Neupogen therapy, circulating neutrophil counts declined by 50% within 1 to 2 days and to pretreatment levels within 1 to 7 days. Isolated neutrophils displayed normal phagocytic and chemotactic activity in vitro.
In a study of the effects of Neupogen in patients with carcinoma of the urothelium, repeated daily IV dosing with Neupogen resulted in a linear dose dependent increase in circulating neutrophil counts over the dose range of 1 to 70 microgram/kg/day. The effects of Neupogen therapy reversed within 24 hours of the termination of administration and neutrophil counts returned to baseline, in most cases, within 4 days.
In a phase 1 study of patients with a variety of malignancies, including lymphoma, multiple myeloma and adenocarcinoma of the lung, breast and colon, Neupogen induced a dose dependent increase in neutrophil counts. This increase in neutrophil counts was observed whether Neupogen was administered intravenously (1 to 70 microgram/kg twice daily), SC (1 to 3 microgram/kg once daily) or by continuous SC infusion (3 to 11 microgram/kg/day).
These results were consistent with a phase 1 study of patients with small cell lung cancer who were administered Neupogen prior to chemotherapy. All patients responded to Neupogen (1 to 45 microgram/kg/day), given for 5 days, with a dose dependent increase in median neutrophil count from a baseline of 9.5 x 109/L to a maximum response of 43 x 109/L.
In a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled phase 3 study of small cell lung cancer patients receiving combination chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and etoposide), treatment with Neupogen resulted in clinically and statistically significant reductions in both the incidence and duration of infection, as manifested by febrile neutropenia. The incidence, severity and duration of severe neutropenia (ANC < 0.5 x 109/L) following chemotherapy were all significantly reduced, as were the requirements for in-patient hospitalisation and antibiotic use (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)). With other myelosuppressive regimens (e.g. M-VAC, melphalan), a dose dependent increase in neutrophil counts was observed, as well as a decrease in the duration of severe neutropenia.
In a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled phase 3 study of patients with AML, the median duration of neutropenia (ANC < 0.5 x 109/L) during the first induction cycle was significantly reduced, from 19 days in the placebo group to 14 days in the Neupogen group. The duration of hospitalisation during induction therapy was also significantly reduced in the Neupogen group, from 29 days to 23 days, as were the duration of fever and incidence of IV antibiotic use. Neupogen had a similar impact on the durations of neutropenia, hospitalisation, fever and IV antibiotic use in subsequent cycles of chemotherapy.
The absolute monocyte count was reported to increase in a dose dependent manner in most patients receiving Neupogen. The percentage of monocytes in the differential count was within the normal range. In all studies to date, absolute counts of both eosinophils and basophils were within the normal range following administration of Neupogen. Small non-dose dependent increases in lymphocyte counts following Neupogen administration have been reported in normal subjects and cancer patients.

Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) collection and therapy.

Use of Neupogen, either alone or after chemotherapy, mobilises haemopoietic progenitor cells into the peripheral blood. These peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) may be harvested and infused after high dose chemotherapy, either in place of, or in addition to bone marrow transplantation. Infusion of PBPCs accelerates the rate of neutrophil and platelet recovery reducing the risk of haemorrhagic complications and the need for platelet transfusions.
In a randomised phase 3 study of patients with Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing myeloablative chemotherapy, 27 patients received autologous Neupogen mobilised peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT) followed by Neupogen 5 microgram/kg/day and 31 patients received autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) followed by Neupogen 5 microgram/kg/day. Patients randomised to the Neupogen mobilised PBPCT group compared to the ABMT group had significantly fewer median days of platelet transfusions (6 vs 10 days), a significantly shorter median time to a sustained platelet count > 20 x 109/L (16 vs 23 days), a significantly shorter median time to recovery of a sustained ANC ≥ 0.5 x 109/L (11 vs 14 days) and a significantly shorter duration of hospitalisation (17 vs 23 days).
In all clinical trials of Neupogen for the mobilisation of PBPCs, Neupogen (5 to 24 microgram/kg/day) was administered following infusion of the cells until a sustainable ANC (≥ 0.5 x 109/L) was reached.
Overall, infusion of Neupogen mobilised PBPCs, supported by Neupogen post-transplantation, provided rapid and sustained haematologic recovery. Long-term (approximately 100 days) follow-up haematology data from patients treated with autologous PBPCT alone or in combination with bone marrow was compared to historical data from patients treated with ABMT alone. This retrospective analysis indicated that engraftment is durable.
In a randomised trial comparing Neupogen mobilised allogeneic PBPCT with allogeneic BMT in patients with acute leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, Neupogen was given at 10 microgram/kg/day to 163 healthy volunteers for 4 to 5 days followed by leukapheresis beginning on day 5. Another 166 healthy volunteers donated bone marrow. The number of CD34+ cells in the leukapheresis product was generally sufficient to support a transplant, with over 80% of donors achieving the target yield of 4 x 106/kg recipient bodyweight. In the vast majority of donors (95%) sufficient PBPCs (2 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg of recipient) were obtained in ≤ 2 leukaphereses. The median number of CD34+ cells in the leukapheresis product (5.8 x 106/kg) was higher than that of bone marrow product (2.7 x 106/kg); however, the product from both procedures was sufficient to allow each recipient to receive a transplant. Following transplant, all recipients received Neupogen at 5 microgram/kg/day until neutrophil recovery (up to 28 days). Recipients of allogeneic PBPC had a shorter median time to platelet recovery of ≥ 20 x 109/L (15 vs 20 days) and shorter median time to ANC recovery of ≥ 0.5 x 109/L (12 vs 15 days). There was no difference in leukaemia free survival at a median follow-up of 12 months.

Patients with severe chronic neutropenia (SCN).

In a randomised, controlled, open label phase 3 trial of 123 patients with idiopathic, cyclic and congenital neutropenia, untreated patients had a median ANC of 0.21 x 109/L. Neupogen therapy was adjusted to maintain the median ANC between 1.5 and 10 x 109/L. A complete response was seen in 88% of patients (defined as a median ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/L) over 5 months of Neupogen therapy. Overall, the response to Neupogen therapy for all patients was observed in 1 to 2 weeks. The median ANC after 5 months of Neupogen therapy for all patients was 7.46 x 109/L (range 0.03 to 30.88 x 109/L). In general, patients with congenital neutropenia responded to Neupogen therapy with lower median ANC than patients with idiopathic or cyclic neutropenia.
Overall, daily treatment with Neupogen resulted in clinically and statistically significant reductions in the incidence and duration of fever, infections and oropharyngeal ulcers. As a result, there also were substantial decreases in requirements for antibiotic use and hospitalisation. Additionally, patients treated with Neupogen reported fewer episodes of diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue and sore throat.

Patients with HIV infection.

In an open label noncomparative study involving 200 HIV positive patients with neutropenia (ANC < 1.0 x 109/L), Neupogen reversed the neutropenia in 98% of patients (ANC ≥ 2.0 x 109/L) with a median time to reversal of 2 days (range 1 to 16) and a median dose of 1 microgram/kg/day (range 0.5 to 10). Ninety six percent of patients achieved reversal of neutropenia with a dose of ≤ 300 microgram/day. Normal ANCs were then maintained with a median dose frequency of 3 times 300 microgram vials/week (range 1 to 7). Ganciclovir, zidovudine, co-trimoxazole and pyrimethamine were the medications most frequently considered to be causing neutropenia and 83% of patients received 1 or more of these on study. During the study, 84% of these patients were able to increase or maintain dosing of these 4 medications or add them to their therapy. The number of these 4 medications received per patient increased by more than 20% (from 0.98 to 1.18) during Neupogen therapy. The median duration of Neupogen treatment was 191 days (range 2 to 815). One hundred fifty three patients received long-term maintenance therapy (> 58 days) and the frequency of dosing was similar to that in the first 30 days of maintenance therapy (71% of patients were receiving 2 to 3 vials per week).
Overall, in patients with HIV infection Neupogen rapidly reverses neutropenia and is subsequently able to maintain normal neutrophil counts during chronic administration.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

In normal volunteers, serum Neupogen concentrations declined monoexponentially following a single intravenous (IV) infusion, exhibiting a half-life of approximately 3 hours. Clearance and volume of distribution averaged 0.6 mL/minute/kg and 163 mL/kg. Following a single SC injection, peak serum concentrations of Neupogen occurred at approximately 4 to 6 hours. The absorption phase can be fitted to either a zero order or a first order model whereas the elimination phase observed a monoexponential decline. No difference in half-lives were observed following IV and SC doses. The bioavailability was estimated to be approximately 50% following SC administration.
In cancer patients, clearance and volume of distribution of Neupogen were found to be lower than in normal volunteers, averaging approximately 0.12 to 0.34 mL/minute/kg and 56 to 127 mL/kg, respectively. However, the elimination half-life appeared to be similar when compared to normal volunteers, averaging 3 to 4 hours. Following a single SC injection of 3.45 microgram/kg and 11.5 microgram/kg, peak serum concentrations occurred at approximately 4 to 5 hours and averaged 4 nanogram/mL and 49 nanogram/mL. Continuous SC infusions of 23 microgram/kg of Neupogen over 24 hours in cancer patients resulted in a steady-state concentration of approximately 50 (30 to 70) nanogram/mL. No evidence of drug accumulation was observed over 11 to 20 days of continuous infusion. When a single IV dose (1.73 to 69 microgram/kg) was administered to cancer patients, the area under the serum concentration time curves increased proportional to the dose. Serum concentrations of Neupogen were found to decrease in paediatric cancer patients who were dosed at 5 to 15 microgram/kg/day for 10 days. The decrease of serum concentrations may be associated with a change in the clearance of Neupogen due to increasing neutrophil counts.
Subcutaneous injections of Neupogen solutions containing either sorbitol or mannitol resulted in similar pharmacokinetic profiles and response in absolute neutrophil counts (ANC). When a single 5 microgram/kg SC dose was administered to normal subjects using 3 concentrations of Neupogen solution (300, 600 and 960 microgram/mL), the 3 concentrations were found to be equivalent in elevating ANC. Although increased maximum serum concentration and area under the serum concentration curve were observed with increasing Neupogen concentrations, these pharmacokinetic differences did not correlate with biological response.

Preclinical studies.

The results of all preclinical studies indicate that the pharmacologic effects of Neupogen are consistent with its predominant role as a regulator of neutrophil production and function.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Cell proliferation potential.

As with other haematopoietic growth factors, G-CSF has shown in vitro stimulating properties on human endothelial cells. G-CSF can promote growth of myeloid cells, including malignant cells, in vitro, and similar effects may be seen on some non-myeloid cells in vitro.

Genotoxicity.

In either the presence or absence of a drug enzyme metabolising system, Neupogen failed to induce chromosomal aberrations (in Chinese hamster lung cells in vitro) or bacterial gene mutations. Neupogen was negative in an in vivo mouse micronuclear test. Neupogen failed to induce bacterial gene mutations in either the presence or absence of a drug metabolising enzyme system.

Carcinogenicity.

The carcinogenic potential of Neupogen has not been studied.

Teratogenicity.

The administration of Neupogen to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses of 20 microgram/kg/day IV, or greater was associated with an increased incidence of embryonic loss, urogenital bleeding and decreased food consumption. External abnormalities were not observed in the fetuses of treated does, but there was a significant increase in the incidence of fusion of sternebrae at an 80 microgram/kg/day dose. The administration of Neupogen to pregnant rabbits at a dose of 5 microgram/kg/day IV was not associated with observable adverse effects to the doe or fetus (see Section 4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation, Use in pregnancy).

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Neupogen is indicated to decrease the incidence of infection, as manifested by febrile neutropenia, in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive anti-cancer drugs in doses not usually requiring bone marrow transplantation.
Neupogen is indicated for reducing the duration of neutropenia and clinical sequelae in patients undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
Neupogen is indicated for the mobilisation of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells alone, or following myelosuppressive chemotherapy, in order to accelerate neutrophil and platelet recovery by infusion of such cells after myeloablative or myelosuppressive therapy in patients with non-myeloid malignancies.
Neupogen is indicated for the mobilisation of peripheral blood progenitor cells, in normal volunteers, for use in allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation.
In patients receiving myeloablative chemotherapy, Neupogen is indicated for reducing the duration of neutropenia and clinical sequelae following autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Neupogen is indicated for chronic administration to increase neutrophil counts and to reduce the incidence and duration of infections in patients with severe chronic neutropenia (SCN).
Neupogen is indicated in patients with HIV infection, for reversal of clinically significant neutropenia and subsequent maintenance of adequate neutrophil counts during treatment with antiviral and/or other myelosuppressive medications.

4.3 Contraindications

Neupogen is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived products, filgrastim, or any other component of the product.

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

General.

Splenomegaly and splenic rupture.

Splenic rupture has been reported following administration of Neupogen; some of these cases were fatal. Left upper abdominal pain and/or shoulder tip pain accompanied by rapid increase in spleen size should be carefully monitored due to the uncommon (≥ 1/1000 and < 1/100) but serious risk of splenic rupture.

Patients with sickle cell disease.

Clinicians should use caution and monitor patients accordingly when administering Neupogen to patients with sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease because of the reported association of Neupogen with sickle cell crisis (in some cases fatal). Use of Neupogen in patients with sickle cell disease should be considered only after careful evaluation of the potential risks and benefits.

Thrombocytopenia.

Thrombocytopenia has been reported commonly (≥ 1/100 and < 1/10) in patients receiving Neupogen. Regular monitoring of the platelet count is recommended.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

There have been occasional reports of the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients receiving Neupogen. Patients with a recent history of pulmonary infiltrates or pneumonia may be at higher risk. The onset of pulmonary signs, such as cough, fever and dyspnoea in association with radiological signs of lung infiltration and deterioration in pulmonary function may be preliminary signs leading to respiratory failure or ARDS. Neupogen should be immediately discontinued and appropriate treatment given.

Pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis.

Pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis requiring hospitalisation have been reported in G-CSF-treated healthy donors undergoing peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) collection mobilisation. Haemoptysis resolved with discontinuation of G-CSF.

Glomerulonephritis.

Glomerulonephritis has been reported in patients receiving Neupogen. Generally, after dose reduction or withdrawal of Neupogen, events of glomerulonephritis resolved. Monitoring of urinalysis is recommended.

Use in myelodysplasia and leukaemia.

The safety and efficacy of Neupogen administration in patients with MDS or chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy without stem cell support have not been established.
Randomised studies of Neupogen in patients undergoing chemotherapy for AML demonstrate no stimulation of disease as measured by remission rate, relapse and survival.

Aortitis.

Aortitis has been reported in patients receiving Neupogen and may present with generalised signs and symptoms such as fever and increased inflammatory markers. Consider aortitis in patients who develop these signs and symptoms without known aetiology.

Record of trade name.

In order to improve the traceability of G-CSFs, the trade name of the administered product should be clearly recorded in the patient file.

Cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

Concurrent use with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

The safety and efficacy of Neupogen given concurrently with cytotoxic chemotherapy have not been established. Because of the potential sensitivity of rapidly dividing myeloid cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy, the use of Neupogen is not recommended in the period 24 hours before to 24 hours after the administration of chemotherapy (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).
No controlled study has been done to examine the combination of chemoradiotherapy and Neupogen on platelet count in a suitable oncology setting. Therefore, until more definitive data are available, simultaneous use of Neupogen with chemoradiation should be undertaken with caution.

Leukocytosis.

White blood cell (WBC) counts of 100 x 109/L or greater were observed in approximately 2% of patients receiving Neupogen at doses above 5 microgram/kg/day. There were no reports of adverse events associated with this degree of leukocytosis. In order to avoid the potential complications of excessive leukocytosis, a FBC is recommended twice per week during Neupogen therapy (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Laboratory monitoring).

Premature discontinuation of Neupogen therapy.

A transient increase in neutrophil counts is typically seen 1 to 2 days after initiation of Neupogen therapy. However, for a sustained therapeutic response, Neupogen therapy should be continued until the postnadir ANC reaches 10 x 109/L. Therefore, the premature discontinuation of Neupogen therapy, prior to the time of recovery from the expected neutrophil nadir, is generally not recommended (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).

Risks associated with increased doses of chemotherapy.

In studies of Neupogen administration following chemotherapy, most reported side effects were consistent with those usually seen as a result of cytotoxic chemotherapy (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)). Because of the potential of receiving higher doses of chemotherapy (i.e. full doses on the prescribed schedule for a longer period), the patient may be at greater risk of thrombocytopenia which should be monitored carefully. Anaemia and nonhaematological consequences of increased chemotherapy doses (please refer to the prescribing information of the specific chemotherapy agents used) also may occur. Regular monitoring of the haematocrit and platelet count is recommended. Furthermore, care should be exercised in the administration of Neupogen in conjunction with drugs known to lower the platelet count and in the presence of moderate or severe organ impairment. Thrombocytopenia may be more severe than normal in later courses of chemotherapy.
The use of Neupogen mobilised PBPCs has been shown to reduce the depth and duration of thrombocytopenia following myelosuppressive or myeloablative chemotherapy.

Peripheral blood progenitor cell collection and therapy.

Mobilisation.

There are no prospectively randomised comparisons of the 2 recommended mobilisation methods (filgrastim alone, or in combination with myelosuppressive chemotherapy) within the same patient population. The degree of variation between both different patient groups and results of laboratory assays of CD34+ cells means that direct comparison between different studies is difficult and an optimum method cannot yet be recommended. The choice of mobilisation method should be considered in relation to the overall objectives of treatment for an individual patient.

Assessment of progenitor cell yields.

In assessing the number of progenitor cells harvested in patients treated with Neupogen, particular attention should be paid to the method of quantitation. The results of flow cytometric analysis of CD34+ cell numbers vary depending on the precise methodology used. Recommendations for minimum acceptable progenitor cell yield based on studies using methods other than that of the reporting laboratory need to be interpreted with caution.
Statistical analysis of the relationship between the number of CD34+ cells infused and the rate of platelet recovery after high dose chemotherapy indicates a complex but continuous relationship, with the probability of more rapid platelet recovery increasing as the CD34+ cell yield increases.
Currently, the minimum acceptable yield of CD34+ cells is not well defined. The recommendation of a minimum yield of ≥ 2 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg is based on published experience resulting in adequate haematologic reconstitution.

Prior exposure to cytotoxic agents.

Patients who have undergone very extensive prior myelosuppressive therapy may not show sufficient mobilisation of PBPCs to achieve the recommended minimum yield (≥ 2 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg) or acceleration of platelet recovery to the same degree. When PBPC transplantation is envisaged it is advisable to plan the stem cell mobilisation procedure early in the treatment course of the patient. Particular attention should be paid to the number of progenitor cells mobilised in such patients before the administration of high dose chemotherapy.
In one phase 2 study in heavily pretreated patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease, no increased yield of progenitor cells was demonstrated by increasing the dose of filgrastim beyond that recommended.
If yields are inadequate, as measured by the criterion above, alternative forms of treatment not requiring progenitor cell support should be considered.
Some cytotoxic agents exhibit particular toxicities to the haemopoietic progenitor pool and may adversely affect progenitor cell mobilisation. Agents such as melphalan, carmustine (BCNU) and carboplatin, when administered over prolonged periods prior to attempts at progenitor cell mobilisation, may reduce progenitor cell yield. Nevertheless, the administration of melphalan, carboplatin or BCNU together with Neupogen has been shown to be effective for progenitor cell mobilisation.

Leukocytosis.

During the period of administration of Neupogen for PBPC mobilisation in cancer patients, discontinuation of Neupogen is appropriate if the leukocyte count rises to > 100 x 109/L.

Tumour contamination of bone marrow and leukapheresis products.

Some studies of patient bone marrow and leukapheresis products have demonstrated the presence of malignant cells. While the possibility exists for tumour cells to be released from the marrow during mobilisation of PBPCs and subsequently collected in the leukapheresis product, in most of the studies, leukapheresis products appear to be less contaminated than bone marrow from the same patient. The effect of reinfusion of tumour cells has not been well studied and the limited data available are inconclusive.

Normal donors undergoing peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilisation.

Mobilisation of PBPC does not provide a direct clinical benefit to normal donors and should only be considered for the purposes of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
PBPC mobilisation should be considered only in donors who meet normal clinical and laboratory eligibility criteria for stem cell donation with special attention to haematological values and infectious disease.
The safety and efficacy of Neupogen has not been assessed in normal donors < 16 years or > 60 years.
Transient thrombocytopenia (platelets < 100 x 109/L) following Neupogen administration and leukapheresis was observed in 35% of subjects studied. Among these, 2 cases of platelets < 50 x 109/L were reported and attributed to the leukapheresis procedure.
If more than 1 leukapheresis is required, particular attention should be paid to donors with platelets < 100 x 109/L prior to leukapheresis; in general apheresis should not be performed if platelets are < 75 x 109/L.
Leukapheresis should not be performed in donors who are anticoagulated or who have known defects in haemostasis.
Neupogen administration should be discontinued or its dosage should be reduced if the leukocyte counts rise to > 100 x 109/L.
Donors who receive Neupogen for PBPC mobilisation should be monitored until haematological indices return to normal.
Insertion of a central venous catheter should be avoided where possible and therefore consideration should be given to the adequacy of venous access when selecting donors.
Long-term safety follow-up of donors is ongoing. For up to 4 years, there have been no reports of abnormal haematopoiesis in normal donors. Nevertheless, a risk of promotion of a malignant myeloid clone cannot be excluded. It is recommended that the apheresis centre perform a systematic record and tracking of the stem cell donors to ensure monitoring of long-term safety.
There have been uncommon (≥ 1/1000 and < 1/100) cases of splenic rupture reported in healthy donors following administration of G-CSFs. In donors experiencing left upper abdominal pain and/or shoulder tip pain and rapid increase in spleen size, the risk of splenic rupture should be considered and carefully monitored.
In normal donors, pulmonary adverse events (haemoptysis, lung infiltration) have been reported.

Recipients of allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor stem cells mobilised with Neupogen.

Current data indicate that immunological interactions between the allogeneic PBPC graft and the recipient may be associated with an increased risk of acute and chronic Graft vs Host Disease (GvHD) when compared with bone marrow transplantation.

Patients with severe chronic neutropenia.

Diagnosis of SCN.

Care should be taken to confirm the diagnosis of SCN, which may be difficult to distinguish from MDS, before initiating Neupogen therapy. The safety and efficacy of Neupogen in the treatment of neutropenia or pancytopenia due to other haemopoietic disorders (e.g. myelodysplastic disorders or myeloid leukaemia) have not been established.
It is, therefore, essential that serial FBCs with differential and platelet counts and an evaluation of bone marrow morphology and karyotype be performed prior to initiation of Neupogen therapy. The use of Neupogen prior to diagnostic confirmation of SCN may mask neutropenia as a diagnostic sign of a disease process other than SCN and prevent adequate evaluation and appropriate treatment of the underlying condition causing the neutropenia.

Myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukaemia.

Cytogenetic abnormalities, transformation to MDS and AML have been observed in patients treated with Neupogen for SCN. Myelodysplasia and AML have been reported to occur in the natural history of SCN without cytokine therapy. Based on available data including a postmarketing surveillance study, the risk of developing MDS and AML appears to be confined to the subset of patients with congenital neutropenia (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)). Abnormal cytogenetics have been associated with the development of myeloid leukaemia. The effect of Neupogen on the development of abnormal cytogenetics and the effect of continued Neupogen administration in patients with abnormal cytogenetics or MDS are unknown. If a patient with SCN develops abnormal cytogenetics or MDS, the risks and benefits of continuing Neupogen should be carefully considered.

Patients with HIV infection.

Risks associated with increased doses of myelosuppressive medications.

Treatment with Neupogen alone does not preclude thrombocytopenia and anaemia due to myelosuppressive medications. As a result of the potential to receive higher doses or a greater number of medications with Neupogen therapy, the patient may be at higher risk of developing thrombocytopenia and anaemia. Regular monitoring of blood counts is recommended (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Laboratory monitoring).

Infections and malignancies causing myelosuppression.

Neutropenia may also be due to bone marrow infiltrating opportunistic infections such as Mycobacterium avium complex or malignancies such as lymphoma. In patients with known bone marrow infiltrating infection or malignancy, consideration should be given to appropriate therapy for treatment of the underlying condition. The effects of Neupogen on neutropenia due to bone marrow infiltrating infection or malignancy have not been well established.

Laboratory monitoring.

Immunogenicity.

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. Rates of antibody generation against filgrastim are generally low. Binding antibodies do develop but have not been associated with neutralising activity or adverse clinical consequences.
The detection of antibody formation is dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. The observed incidence of antibody positivity (including neutralising antibody) in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications and underlying disease, therefore comparison of the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.

Cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

An FBC, haematocrit and platelet count should be obtained prior to chemotherapy and at regular intervals (twice per week) during Neupogen therapy. Following cytotoxic chemotherapy, the neutrophil nadir occurred earlier during cycles when Neupogen was administered, and WBC differentials demonstrated a left shift, including the appearance of promyelocytes and myeloblasts. In addition, the duration of severe neutropenia was reduced, and was followed by an accelerated recovery in the neutrophil counts. Therefore, regular monitoring of WBC counts, particularly at the time of the recovery from the postchemotherapy nadir, is recommended in order to avoid excessive leukocytosis (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).

Peripheral blood progenitor cell collection and therapy.

After 4 days of Neupogen treatment for PBPC mobilisation, neutrophil counts should be monitored. Frequent complete blood counts and platelet counts are recommended following infusion of PBPCs, at least 3 times per week until haemopoietic recovery.
The mobilisation and apheresis procedures should be performed in collaboration with an oncology/ haematology centre with acceptable experience in this field and where the monitoring of haemopoietic progenitor cells can be appropriately performed and interpreted (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).

Patients with severe chronic neutropenia.

During the initial 4 weeks of Neupogen therapy and for 2 weeks following any dose adjustment, an FBC with differential count should be performed twice weekly. Once a patient is clinically stable, an FBC with differential count and platelet determination should be performed monthly during the first year of treatment. Thereafter, if clinically stable, routine monitoring with regular FBCs (i.e. as clinically indicated but at least quarterly) is recommended. Additionally, for those patients with congenital neutropenia, annual bone marrow and cytogenetic evaluations should be performed throughout the duration of treatment (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use; Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)).
In clinical trials, the following laboratory results were observed.
Cyclic fluctuations in the neutrophil counts were frequently observed in patients with congenital or idiopathic neutropenia after initiation of Neupogen therapy.
Platelet counts were generally at the upper limits of normal prior to Neupogen therapy. With Neupogen therapy, platelet counts decreased but generally remained within normal limits (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects));
Early myeloid forms were noted in peripheral blood in most patients, including the appearance of metamyelocytes and myelocytes. Promyelocytes and myeloblasts were noted in some patients.
Relative increases were occasionally noted in the number of circulating eosinophils and basophils. No consistent increases were observed with Neupogen therapy.

Patients with HIV infection.

Absolute neutrophil count should be monitored closely, especially during the first few weeks of Neupogen therapy. Some patients may respond very rapidly with a considerable increase in neutrophil count after initial doses of Neupogen. It is recommended that the ANC is measured daily for the first 2 to 3 days of Neupogen administration. Thereafter, it is recommended that the ANC is measured at least twice per week for the first 2 weeks and subsequently once per week or once every other week during maintenance therapy. During intermittent dosing with 300 microgram of Neupogen, there will be wide fluctuations in the patient's ANC over time. In order to determine a patient's trough or nadir ANC, it is recommended that blood samples for ANC measurement are obtained immediately prior to any scheduled dosing with Neupogen.

Use in the elderly.

No data available.

Paediatric use.

Long-term follow-up data are available from a postmarketing surveillance study in SCN patients including 32 infants, 200 children and 68 adolescents. The data suggest that height and weight are not adversely affected in paediatric patients who received up to 5 years of Neupogen treatment. Limited data from patients who were followed in a phase 3 study to assess the safety and efficacy of Neupogen in SCN for 1.5 years did not suggest alterations in sexual maturation or endocrine function.
Paediatric patients with congenital types of neutropenia (Kostmann's syndrome, congenital agranulocytosis or Schwachman-Diamond syndrome) have developed cytogenetic abnormalities and have undergone transformation to MDS and AML while receiving chronic Neupogen treatment. The relationship of these events to Neupogen administration is unknown (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration; Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)).
Although use in children with AML is not excluded, published experience is limited and safety has not been clearly established.

Effects on laboratory tests.

Not known.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

Bone imaging.

Increased haematopoietic activity of the bone marrow in response to growth factor therapy has been associated with transient positive bone imaging changes. This should be considered when interpreting bone imaging results.

Lithium.

The potential for pharmacodynamic interaction with lithium, which also promotes the release of neutrophils, has not been specifically investigated. There is no evidence that such an interaction would be harmful.

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

Neupogen had no observed effect on the fertility of male or female rats, or gestation at doses up to 500 microgram/kg. No human data are available.
(Category B3)
There are no company sponsored studies of the use of Neupogen in pregnant women. However, there are cases in the literature where the transplacental passage of Neupogen has been demonstrated. Neupogen should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
Reproductive studies in pregnant rats have shown that Neupogen was not associated with lethal, teratogenic or behavioural effects on fetuses when administered by daily IV injection during the period of organogenesis at dose levels up to 575 microgram/kg/day (see Section 5.3 Preclinical Safety Data, Teratogenicity).
It is not known whether Neupogen is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised in the use of Neupogen in nursing women.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

In clinical trials involving over 200 patients receiving Neupogen following cytotoxic chemotherapy, most adverse experiences were the sequelae of the underlying malignancy or cytotoxic chemotherapy. In all phase 2/3 trials, medullary bone pain was the only consistently observed adverse reaction attributed to Neupogen therapy, reported in 24% of patients. This bone pain was generally reported to be of mild to moderate severity, and could be controlled in most patients with non-narcotic analgesics. Infrequently, bone pain was severe enough to require narcotic analgesics. Bone pain was reported more frequently in patients treated with higher doses (20 to 100 microgram/kg/day) administered IV and less frequently in patients treated with lower SC doses of Neupogen (3 to 10 microgram/kg/day).
In the randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of Neupogen therapy following combination chemotherapy in patients with small cell lung cancer, the following adverse events in Table 2 were reported to be possibly, probably or definitely related to the double blind study medication (placebo or Neupogen at 4 to 8 microgram/kg/day).
In this study, there were no serious, life threatening or fatal adverse reactions attributed to Neupogen therapy. Specifically, there were no reports of flu-like symptoms, pleuritis, pericarditis or other major systemic reactions to Neupogen.
Spontaneously reversible elevations in uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase occurred in 26% to 56% of patients receiving Neupogen following cytotoxic chemotherapy. These elevations were not reported to be associated with clinical adverse events.
The occurrence of stomatitis and diarrhoea in patients receiving allogeneic transplants is consistent with the use of myeloablative chemotherapy. In a study of 70 patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in which 33 patients were randomised to the placebo group and 37 to the filgrastim group, the incidence and severity of diarrhoea and stomatitis increased from the pretransplant to the post-transplant period in both the placebo and filgrastim treated patients. Prior to transplantation, 12 patients randomised to the placebo group and 6 patients randomised to filgrastim reported moderate to severe diarrhoea. Following transplantation, the incidence of moderate to severe diarrhoea increased to 23 and 14 patients respectively. No patients in either group experienced moderate or severe stomatitis prior to transplantation, while after transplantation, 19 patients in the placebo group and 8 patients in the filgrastim group reported moderate to severe stomatitis.
In a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled phase 3 study of patients with AML, there were 3 patients reported to have developed ARDS during the study (2 Neupogen, 1 placebo). This is a rare but expected event in this patient population, and all 3 patients had recognised predisposing factors. As a causal relationship between the development of ARDS and Neupogen treatment has not been established, and as multiple risk factors are often present, any decision to discontinue Neupogen in this setting should be based on the overall assessment of contributing factors.
Extremely rare cases of capillary leak syndrome have been reported.
Rare cases (≤ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000) of Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) have been reported.
Very rare (estimated 0.03 cases per 100,000 exposures [0.00003%]) events of chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate have been reported in patients with cancer treated with filgrastim.

Chronic administration.

With chronic administration, clinical splenomegaly has been reported in 30% of patients. Less frequently observed adverse events included exacerbation of some pre-existing skin disorders (e.g. psoriasis), cutaneous vasculitis (leukocytoclastic), alopecia, haematuria/ proteinuria, thrombocytopenia (platelets < 50 x 109/L) and osteoporosis. Patients receiving chronic treatment with Neupogen should be monitored periodically for the appearance of these conditions.
No evidence of interaction of Neupogen with other drugs was observed in the course of clinical trials (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use). Since commercial introduction of Neupogen, there have been rare reports (< 1 in 100,000 administrations) of symptoms suggestive of allergic type reactions, such as anaphylactic reactions, dyspnoea, hypotension, skin rash and urticaria, but in which an immune component has not been demonstrated. Approximately half occurred following the initial dose; reactions occurred more frequently with IV administration. Symptoms recurred in some patients rechallenged. There have been rare reports (< 1 in 500,000 administrations) of cutaneous vasculitis. Neupogen should be permanently discontinued in patients who experience a serious allergic reaction.
In chronically treated patients, including some who have received Neupogen daily for almost 2 years, there has been no evidence of the development of antibodies to Neupogen or a blunted or diminished response over time.

Peripheral blood progenitor cell collection and therapy.

Neupogen mobilised autologous PBPC collection.

In clinical trials, 126 patients have received Neupogen for mobilisation of PBPCs. During the mobilisation period, adverse events related to Neupogen consisted primarily of mild to moderate musculoskeletal symptoms, reported in 44% of patients. These symptoms were predominantly events of medullary bone pain (38%). Headache was reported related to Neupogen in 7% of patients. Mild to moderate transient increases in alkaline phosphatase levels were reported related to Neupogen in 21% of the patients who had serum chemistries evaluated during the mobilisation phase.
All patients had increases in neutrophil counts consistent with the biological effects of Neupogen. Two patients had a WBC count greater than 100 x 109/L with WBC count increases during the mobilisation period ranging from 16.7 to 138 x 109/L above baseline. Eighty eight percent of patients had an increase in WBC count between 10 and 70 x 109/L above baseline. No clinical sequelae were associated with any grade of leukocytosis.
Sixty five percent of patients had downward shifts in haemoglobin, which were generally mild to moderate (59%) and 97% of patients had decreases in platelet counts related to the leukapheresis procedure. Only 2 patients had platelet counts less than 50 x 109/L.

Allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilisation in normal donors.

The most commonly reported adverse event was mild to moderate transient musculoskeletal pain. Leukocytosis (WBC > 50 x 109/L) was observed in 41% of donors and transient thrombocytopenia (platelets < 100 x 109/L) following Neupogen and leukapheresis was observed in 35% of donors.
Transient, minor increases in alkaline phosphatase, LDH, AST and uric acid have been reported in normal donors receiving Neupogen; these were without clinical sequelae.
Exacerbation of arthritic symptoms has been observed very rarely.
Symptoms suggestive of severe allergic reactions have been reported very rarely.
Headaches, believed to be caused by Neupogen, have been reported in PBPC donor studies.
There have been uncommon (≥ 1/1000 and < 1/100) cases of splenic rupture reported in normal donors receiving G-CSFs (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
Extremely rare cases of capillary leak syndrome have been reported.
In normal donors, pulmonary adverse events (haemoptysis, lung infiltration) have been reported.

PBPC transplantation supported by Neupogen.

During the period of Neupogen administration postinfusion of autologous PBPCs, Neupogen was administered to 110 patients as supportive therapy and adverse events were consistent with those expected after high dose chemotherapy. Mild to moderate musculoskeletal pain was the most frequently reported adverse event related to Neupogen, reported in 15% of patients. In patients receiving allogeneic PBPCs, a similar incidence of musculoskeletal pain was reported.

Patients with severe chronic neutropenia.

The safety and efficacy of chronic daily administration of Neupogen in patients with SCN have been established in phase 1/2 clinical trials of 74 patients treated for up to 3 years, and in a phase 3 trial of 123 patients treated for up to 2 years.
Mild to moderate bone pain was reported in approximately 33% of patients in clinical trials. This symptom was readily controlled with mild analgesics. General musculoskeletal pain was also noted in higher frequency in patients treated with Neupogen. Palpable splenomegaly was observed in approximately 30% of patients. Abdominal or flank pain was seen infrequently and thrombocytopenia (< 50 x 109/L) was noted in 12% of patients with palpable spleens. Less than 3% of all patients underwent splenectomy, and most of these had a prestudy history of splenomegaly. Less than 6% of patients had thrombocytopenia (< 50 x 109/L) during Neupogen therapy, most of whom had a prestudy history. In most cases, thrombocytopenia was managed by Neupogen dose reduction or interruption. There were no associated serious haemorrhagic sequelae in these patients. Epistaxis was noted in 15% of patients treated with Neupogen, but was associated with thrombocytopenia in 2% of patients. Anaemia was reported in approximately 10% of patients, but in most cases appeared to be related to frequent diagnostic phlebotomy, chronic illness or concomitant medications.
Cytogenetic abnormalities, transformation to MDS and AML have been observed in patients treated with Neupogen for SCN (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use). Based on analysis of data from a postmarketing surveillance study of 531 SCN patients with an average follow-up of 4.0 years, the risk of developing these abnormalities (cytogenetic abnormalities, MDS and AML) appears to be confined to the subset of patients with congenital neutropenia. A life table analysis of these data revealed that the cumulative risk of developing leukaemia or MDS by the end of the 8th year of Neupogen treatment in a patient with congenital neutropenia was 16.5% which is an annual rate of approximately 2%.
Cytogenetic abnormalities, including monosomy 7, have been reported in patients treated with Neupogen who had previously documented normal cytogenetic evaluations. It is unknown whether the development of cytogenetic abnormalities, MDS or AML is related to chronic daily Neupogen administration or to the natural history of SCN. It is also unknown if the rate of conversion in patients who have not received Neupogen is different from that of patients who have received Neupogen. Routine monitoring through regular FBCs is recommended for all SCN patients. Additionally, annual bone marrow and cytogenetic evaluations are recommended in all patients with congenital neutropenia (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
Other adverse events infrequently observed and possibly related to Neupogen therapy were: injection site reaction, headache, hepatomegaly, arthralgia, osteoporosis, rash, alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis and haematuria/ proteinuria. Patients receiving chronic treatment with Neupogen should be monitored periodically for the appearance of these conditions.
In postmarketing experience, common cases of decreased bone density and osteoporosis have been reported in paediatric patients with SCN receiving chronic treatment with Neupogen.

Patients with HIV infection.

In 3 clinical studies involving a total of 244 HIV positive patients, the only adverse events that were consistently considered related to Neupogen administration were musculoskeletal pain, predominantly mild to moderate bone pain and myalgia. In the largest of the 3 studies involving 200 patients, the event rate was 12%. This is consistent with the 14% incidence of musculoskeletal pain reported in clinical trials in other indications where doses of 0.35 to 11.5 microgram/kg/day were used. The incidence of severe musculoskeletal pain (3%) was identical to that reported in clinical trials in other indications.
In a small study of 24 patients, there were 7 reports of treatment related splenomegaly, but in a larger study of 200 patients, there were no such reports. In the former study, no baseline measurements of spleen size were made for comparison with on study measurements. In all cases, splenomegaly was mild or moderate on physical examination and the clinical course was benign; no patients had a diagnosis of hypersplenism and no patients underwent splenectomy. As splenic enlargement is a common finding in patients with HIV infection and is present to varying degrees in most patients with AIDS, the relationship to Neupogen treatment is unclear.
An analysis was performed on viral load data, as measured by HIV-1 RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), from a controlled randomised study of Neupogen for the prevention of grade 4 neutropenia. No clinically or statistically significant differences were seen between Neupogen treated groups and untreated groups for changes in viral load over a 24 week period. However, since the study was not powered to show equivalence between the groups, the possibility that Neupogen affects HIV-1 replication cannot be excluded. There was also no detrimental effect on immunological markers, which is important in a population of patients in whom a decline in CD4+ T lymphocyte count is expected. There were no safety concerns with long-term administration of Neupogen in this setting.

Adverse reactions relevant to all indications.

In combined clinical trial data involving a total of 5004 patients, adverse reactions are listed below. Adverse reactions observed in the combined clinical trial data which are present in the adverse effects section by indication above, are not included in this list:

Very common (≥ 1/10).

Nausea, vomiting, pyrexia, fatigue, and headache.

Common (≥ 1/100 and < 1/10).

Hypertension, pain, oral pain, oropharyngeal pain, haemoptysis, chest pain, back pain, arthralgia, asthenia, malaise, cough, oedema peripheral, decreased appetite, constipation, sepsis, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, muscle spasms, dizziness, hypoaesthesia, paraesthesia, insomnia, erythema, and transfusion reaction.

Uncommon (≥ 1/1000 and < 1/100).

Hypersensitivity, lung infiltration and rash maculopapular.

Rare (≥ 1/10,000 and < 1/1,000).

Glomerulonephritis.

Postmarketing experience relevant to all indications.

Cases of splenomegaly have been reported commonly (≥ 1/100 and < 1/10) in patients treated with Neupogen.
Cases of splenic rupture, sickle cell anaemia with crisis and glomerulonephritis have been reported uncommonly (≥ 1/1000 and < 1/100) in patients treated with Neupogen.
Cases of pulmonary haemorrhage, pulmonary infiltrates, and haemoptysis have been reported in patients receiving Neupogen.
Cases of aortitis have been reported in patients receiving Neupogen.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at http://www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

Cancer patients receiving standard dose cytotoxic chemotherapy or induction/ consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

In adults and children receiving induction/ consolidation chemotherapy for AML, the recommended starting dose is 5 microgram/kg/day administered as a single daily subcutaneous (SC) injection.
In patients with nonmyeloid malignancies receiving standard dose cytotoxic chemotherapy, the recommended starting dose of Neupogen is 5 microgram/kg/day, administered as a single daily SC injection or short intravenous (IV) infusion (over 15 to 30 minutes). In phase 3 trials efficacy was observed at doses of 4 to 8 microgram/kg/day.
Neupogen should not be administered in the period 24 hours before to 24 hours after the administration of chemotherapy (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
The duration of Neupogen therapy needed to attenuate chemotherapy induced neutropenia may be dependent on the myelosuppressive potential of the chemotherapy regimen employed. In patients with nonmyeloid malignancies receiving standard dose cytotoxic chemotherapy, Neupogen should be administered daily for up to 2 weeks, until the Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) has reached 10 x 109/L following the expected chemotherapy induced neutrophil nadir. In patients with AML receiving induction or consolidation chemotherapy, Neupogen should be administered daily until the ANC has reached > 1.0 x 109/L for 3 consecutive days or > 10 x 109/L for 1 day following the expected chemotherapy induced neutrophil nadir.

Patients with nonmyeloid malignancies receiving high dose cytotoxic chemotherapy with autologous or allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation.

The recommended starting dose of Neupogen is 10 microgram/kg/day given by continuous SC infusion or by IV infusion over 4 to 24 hours. Neupogen should be diluted in 25 to 50 mL of 5% glucose solution.
The first dose of Neupogen should be administered not less than 24 hours following cytotoxic chemotherapy and within 24 hours of bone marrow or PBPC infusion.
Once the neutrophil nadir has been passed, the daily dose of Neupogen should be titrated against the neutrophil response as per Table 1.

Patients with myeloid malignancies receiving high dose cytotoxic chemotherapy with autologous or allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation.

Following transplant, the recommended dose of Neupogen to be given to the recipient is 5 microgram/kg/day until neutrophil recovery (up to 28 days).
When given post-transplantation, the first dose of Neupogen should be administered at least 24 hours after cytotoxic chemotherapy and at least 24 hours after infusion of bone marrow or PBPCs.

Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell collection and therapy.

The recommended dose of Neupogen for PBPC mobilisation when used alone is 10 microgram/kg/day given as a single daily SC injection or a continuous 24 hour infusion. Neupogen therapy should be given for at least 4 days before the first leukapheresis procedure, and should be continued through to the day of the last leukapheresis procedure. Collections should be commenced on day 5 and continued on consecutive days until the desired yield of haemopoietic progenitor cells is obtained. For PBPCs mobilised with Neupogen alone, a schedule of leukapheresis collections on days 5, 6 and 7 of a 7 day treatment regimen has been found to be effective. In some patients with extensive prior chemotherapy, additional daily doses of Neupogen may be required to support additional leukaphereses to reach the desired target yield of cells (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Peripheral blood progenitor cell collection and therapy).
The recommended dose of Neupogen for PBPC mobilisation after myelosuppressive chemotherapy is 5 microgram/kg/day given daily by SC injection from 24 hours after completion of chemotherapy until the expected neutrophil nadir is passed and the neutrophil count has recovered to the normal range. Leukapheresis should be commenced during the period when the ANC rises from < 0.5 x 109/L to > 5.0 x 109/L. Leukapheresis collection should be repeated on consecutive days until an adequate number of progenitor cells is obtained (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Peripheral blood progenitor cell collection and therapy).
In all clinical trials of Neupogen for the mobilisation of PBPCs, Neupogen was administered following infusion of the collected cells. In the randomised phase 3 study, patients received Neupogen 5 microgram/kg/day post-transplantation until a sustainable ANC (> 0.5 x 109/L) was reached (see Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties, Clinical trials).
When given post-transplantation, the first dose of Neupogen should be administered at least 24 hours after cytotoxic chemotherapy and at least 24 hours after infusion of PBPCs.

Allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell collection from normal donors.

For PBPC mobilisation in normal donors, Neupogen should be administered at 10 microgram/kg/day SC for 4 to 5 consecutive days. Leukapheresis should be started on day 5 and daily collections continued on day 6 in order to collect a target yield of 4 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg recipient bodyweight.

Patients with severe chronic neutropenia.

Care should be taken to confirm the diagnosis of SCN, which may be difficult to distinguish from myelodysplasia (MDS), before initiating Neupogen therapy.
It is essential that serial Full Blood Counts (FBCs) with differential and platelet counts, and an evaluation of bone marrow morphology and karyotype be performed prior to initiation of Neupogen therapy.

Starting dose.

Congenital neutropenia.

The recommended daily starting dose is 12 microgram/kg SC every day (single or divided doses).

Idiopathic or cyclic neutropenia.

The recommended daily starting dose is 5 microgram/kg SC every day (single or divided doses).
Neupogen may be administered SC as a single daily injection to increase and sustain the average neutrophil count above 1.5 x 109/L. Chronic daily administration is required to maintain an adequate neutrophil count.

Dose adjustment.

After 1 to 2 weeks of therapy, the initial dose may be doubled or halved. Subsequently, the dose may be individually adjusted not more than every 1 to 2 weeks to maintain the average neutrophil count between 1.5 and 10 x 109/L. The dose should be reduced if the ANC is persistently above 10 x 109/L for 1 to 2 weeks.
In clinical trials, 97% of patients who responded to treatment with Neupogen were treated at doses ≤ 24 microgram/kg/day. In the SCN postmarketing surveillance study, the reported median daily doses of Neupogen were 6.0 microgram/kg (congenital neutropenia), 2.1 microgram/kg (cyclic neutropenia) and 1.2 microgram/kg (idiopathic neutropenia). In rare instances, patients with congenital neutropenia have required doses of Neupogen ≥ 100 microgram/kg/day.

Patients with HIV infection.

The recommended starting dose of Neupogen is 1 microgram/kg/day administered daily by SC injection with titration up to a maximum of 5 microgram/kg/day until a normal neutrophil count is reached and can be maintained (ANC ≥ 2.0 x 109/L). In clinical studies, 96% of patients responded to Neupogen at these doses, achieving reversal of neutropenia in a median of 2 days.
In a small number of patients (2%), doses of up to 10 microgram/kg/day were required to achieve reversal of neutropenia.

For maintaining neutrophil counts.

When reversal of neutropenia has been achieved, the minimal effective dose of Neupogen to maintain a normal neutrophil count should be established. Initial dose adjustment to 3 times weekly dosing with 300 microgram/day by SC injection is recommended. Further dose adjustment may be necessary, as determined by the patient's ANC, to maintain the neutrophil count at ≥ 2.0 x 109/L. In clinical studies, dosing with 300 microgram/day on 1 to 7 days per week was required to maintain the ANC ≥ 2.0 x 109/L, with the median dose frequency being 3 days per week. Long-term administration may be required to maintain the ANC ≥ 2.0 x 109/L. Neupogen dosing should be reduced and then stopped if myelosuppressive medication is discontinued and there is no recurrence of neutropenia.

Dilution and sterile transfer.

Neupogen vials should be used on 1 occasion only and any residue discarded (see Section 6.4 Special Precautions for Storage).
If required, Neupogen may be diluted in 5% glucose. Neupogen diluted to concentrations below 15 microgram/mL should be protected from adsorption to plastic materials by addition of Albumin (Human) to a final concentration of 2 mg/mL. When diluted in 5% glucose or 5% glucose plus Albumin (Human), Neupogen is compatible with glass and a variety of plastics including PVC, polyolefin and polypropylene.
Dilution to a final concentration of less than 5 microgram/mL filgrastim is not recommended at any time. Infusion should be complete within 24 hours of the sterile dilution and transfer. See Section 6.4 Special Precautions for Storage, for details of storage of diluted Neupogen.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discolouration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. If particulates or discolouration are observed, the container should not be used.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

The effects of this medicine on a person's ability to drive and use machines were not assessed as part of its registration.

4.9 Overdose

The maximum tolerated dose of Neupogen has not been determined. Twenty seven patients have been treated at Neupogen doses of ≥ 69 microgram/kg/day. Of those, 6 patients have been treated at 115 microgram/kg/day with no toxic effects attributable to Neupogen. Efficacy has been demonstrated using much lower doses (doses of 4 to 8 microgram/kg/day showed efficacy in the phase 3 study). Doses of Neupogen which increase the ANC beyond 10 x 109/L may not result in any additional clinical benefit.
In clinical trials of Neupogen in cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy, WBC counts > 100 x 109/L have been reported in less than 5% of patients, but were not associated with any reported adverse clinical effects.
It is recommended, to avoid the potential risks of excessive leukocytosis, that Neupogen therapy should be discontinued if the ANC surpasses 10 x 109/L after the chemotherapy induced ANC nadir has occurred.
In cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy, discontinuation of Neupogen therapy usually results in a 50% decrease in circulating neutrophils within 1 to 2 days, with a return to pretreatment levels in 1 to 7 days.
For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poison Information Centre on 131126 (Australia).

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

S4.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

Each single use pre-filled syringe and vial contains: Acetate; Sorbitol; Polysorbate 80; Sodium; Water for injections.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Do not dilute with saline at any time; product may precipitate.

6.3 Shelf Life

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the packaging.

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

Neupogen should be stored in the refrigerator at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). A single brief period (up to 3 days) of exposure to room temperature (up to 30°C) or exposure to freezing temperatures (as low as -20°C) does not adversely affect the stability of Neupogen. Avoid vigorous shaking.

Neupogen dilutions.

Solutions withdrawn under aseptic conditions, such as a laminar flow hood, may be stored in polypropylene syringes at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) for up to 24 hours before use. To reduce the possibility of microbiological hazard from product manipulation, storage for longer periods is not recommended due to the compromised condition of this patient population in regard to infection.
Diluted Neupogen should not be prepared more than 24 hours before administration and should be stored in the refrigerator at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). Prior to injection, Neupogen may be allowed to reach room temperature.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

Filgrastim is supplied in Type I glass vials and Type I glass pre-filled syringes.
The vial stopper and needle cover for the pre-filled syringe contains dry natural rubber (a derivative of latex).
Neupogen 300 microgram/0.5 mL syringe for SC or IV injection: Single use, preservative-free syringes containing 300 microgram (0.5 mL) of filgrastim (600 microgram/mL). Boxes of 10.
Neupogen 480 microgram/0.5 mL syringe for SC or IV injection: Single use, preservative-free syringes containing 480 microgram (0.5 mL) of filgrastim (960 microgram/mL). Boxes of 10.
Neupogen 300 microgram/1 mL vial for SC or IV injection: Single use, preservative-free vials containing 300 microgram (1 mL) of filgrastim (300 microgram/mL). Boxes of 10.
Neupogen 480 microgram/1.6 mL vial for SC or IV injection: Single use, preservative-free vials containing 480 microgram (1.6 mL) of filgrastim (300 microgram/mL). Boxes of 10.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of by taking to your local pharmacy.

Summary Table of Changes