Consumer medicine information

ProQuad

Measles vaccine, live; Mumps vaccine, live; Rubella vaccine, live; Varicella zoster vaccine, live attenuated

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

ProQuad

Active ingredient

Measles vaccine, live; Mumps vaccine, live; Rubella vaccine, live; Varicella zoster vaccine, live attenuated

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using ProQuad.

What is in this leaflet

This leaflet answers some common questions about ProQuad. It does not contain all the available information.

It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.

All medicines and vaccines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of your child being given ProQuad against the benefits they expect it will have for your child.

If you have any concerns about being given this vaccine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Keep this leaflet with the medicine. You may need to read it again.

What ProQuad is used for

ProQuad is a vaccine used to help protect people from getting measles, mumps, rubella (German measles) and chicken pox. It can be given to children aged 12 months to 12 years of age.

Protection against these infections is important as they can cause serious problems in some people.

Measles is a serious disease that causes a high fever (temperature), runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis and a rash. It usually lasts for about 1 to 2 weeks. It is very easily passed from one person to another in the tiny droplets of moisture which are expelled during coughing or sneezing. One out of every 10 children who catch measles will also have an ear infection or pneumonia. On rare occasions, measles can also cause an infection of the brain that could lead to seizures, hearing loss, mental retardation, and even death. Babies and adults who catch measles are often much sicker for a longer time or are more likely to die than school children and teenagers who catch measles.

Mumps causes fever, headache, and swollen, painful glands under the jaw (salivary glands) and usually lasts several days. It is easily passed from one person to another by the tiny droplets of moisture expelled during coughing or sneezing. Mumps can sometimes be a very serious disease, causing a mild inflammation of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) in about one person in every 10 who catch it. About one out of every 4 teenage or adult males with mumps will have a painful swelling of the testicles for several days. This does not usually affect their ability to father children, but can cause sterility in rare cases. Teenagers and adults, especially males, who catch mumps are often much sicker and more likely to suffer longer than children do.

Rubella is usually a mild disease that causes a mild fever, swollen glands in the neck, pain and swelling in the joints, and a rash that lasts for 2 or 3 days. Rubella is very dangerous if a pregnant woman catches it. Pregnant women who catch rubella can have babies who are stillborn, or have heart disease, blindness, deafness, or problems with learning. Rubella is also spread to others in the tiny droplets of moisture expelled during coughing or sneezing.

Chickenpox (Varicella) is an infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, or otherwise known as varicella virus. It occurs in millions of people around the world each year, most often in children 5 to 9 years of age. Chickenpox is easily passed from one person to another. It is commonly spread from person to person through the air by sneezing or coughing. Once a person is infected, it usually takes about 2 to 3 weeks before symptoms of the infection start.

Symptoms of chickenpox include mild headache, moderate fever and general discomfort. These are followed by a rash of itchy, little red spots which usually start on the chest, stomach or back, but can appear anywhere on the body. There may be only a few spots or groups of spots, or even hundreds of spots that develop over the next 3 to 5 days. The spots will change into clear blisters filled with fluid which then become cloudy, break open, dry, scab and heal, usually within 5 to 20 days.

Although chickenpox is generally a fairly harmless infection, it may be associated with serious complications and/or rarely death. In children, the most common complications are bacterial skin infections. Less frequent but very serious complications include pneumonia, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), Reye Syndrome (which causes brain and liver damage), and death. Severe disease and serious complications are more likely to occur in teenagers and adults.

ProQuad contains weakened strains of living measles, mumps, rubella and varicella viruses. These strains of live viruses cause either mild or no symptoms of infection.

When injected the vaccine causes the body to produce its own protection by making disease-fighting substances (antibodies) against these infections.

If a vaccinated child comes into contact with measles, mumps, rubella or varicella virus, the body is usually ready, and produces antibodies to destroy the virus. However, as with all vaccines, 100% protection against measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox cannot be guaranteed. Also it may take up to 4-6 weeks for maximum protection to develop, so occasionally infections may occur during this time.

It is not known whether ProQuad will prevent measles, mumps, rubella or chickenpox if it is given after you have been exposed to the natural measles, mumps, rubella or varicella virus. Therefore, vaccination before exposure is the best way to help protect against infection and possible serious complications.

Only one injection of ProQuad is needed to help protect against chickenpox in children aged 12 months through 12 years.

The chance of a severe reaction from ProQuad is very small, but the risks from not being vaccinated are very serious.

Before ProQuad is given

When your child must not be given it

Do not let your child have the vaccine if your child had an allergy to ProQuad or any of the ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet, including gelatin.

Do not let your child have ProQuad if your child has a serious allergy to:

  • the antibiotic neomycin.

Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction include swelling of the face, lips, tongue, throat, difficulty in breathing, or hives.

Do not let your child have ProQuad if:

  • your child has an infection with fever (high temperature)
  • your child has active untreated tuberculosis (TB)
  • your child is taking medicines which decrease the body's immune defence system (eg, corticosteroids, cyclosporin, cancer medicines)
    This does not include taking corticosteroids (eg, cortisone, prednisone) as replacement therapy for Addison's disease.
  • your child has diseases which decrease the body's immune defence system, such as blood disorders, cancers of the blood cells or lymph system (eg, leukaemia, lymphoma) and HIV/AIDS
  • your child has a family history of immune deficiency
  • your child is pregnant
    Pregnancy should be avoided for 3 months following vaccination.
  • the expiry date on the pack has passed
    If the vaccine is used after the expiry date has passed, it may not work.

If you are not sure whether your child should have ProQuad, talk to your doctor.

Do not give ProQuad to children under 12 months of age. The safety and effectiveness of ProQuad in children below the age of 12 months have not been established.

Before your child is given it

Tell your doctor if:

  1. your child has the following medical conditions or a family history of them:
  • febrile convulsions (fits or seizures due to a high temperature)
  • brain damage
  • epilepsy
  • low blood platelet count
  • seizures
  1. your child has a history of serious allergy to eggs
The strains of measles and mumps viruses used to make ProQuad are grown in egg-derived cultures.
  1. your child has received blood or plasma transfusions or immune globulins within the past three months
Your doctor may decide to delay the injection of ProQuad.
  1. your child is about to have a tuberculin test
This should be given either before or at the same time as the injection of ProQuad.
  1. your child is breast-feeding
The vaccine should not be given if the recipient is breast-feeding or intends to breast-feed.
  1. your child has any allergies to any other medicines especially to neomycin or vaccines, or any other substances, such as foods, preservatives or dyes.
  2. your child has a blood-clotting disorder or bleeds or bruises more easily. In this case, your doctor will give your child the vaccine under the skin (subcutaneously).

If you have not told your doctor about any of the above, tell them before your child is given ProQuad.

In rare circumstances, it is possible to catch chickenpox, including severe chickenpox, from a person who has been vaccinated with ProQuad. This may occur in persons who have not previously been vaccinated against chickenpox or had chickenpox, as well as persons who fall into one of the following categories:

  • individuals with a weakened immune system
  • pregnant women who never had chickenpox
  • newborn babies whose mothers never had chickenpox

Whenever possible, individuals who have been vaccinated with ProQuad should attempt to avoid close contact, for up to 6 weeks following the vaccination, with anyone who falls into one of the categories above. Tell the doctor if there is anyone who falls into one of the categories above and is expected to be in close contact with the person being vaccinated.

ProQuad may be used for vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox. The appropriate time and number of injections will be determined by your doctor using appropriate official recommendations.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor if your child is taking any other medicines, including any that you buy without a prescription from your pharmacy, supermarket or health food shop.

ProQuad should not be given to children who are using the following:

  • medicines that decrease the immune system, such as corticosteroids (eg. prednisone), cyclosporine, or cancer medicines
  • aspirin or other salicylate medicines

Your doctor will advise you whether your child is receiving any of these medicines.

Some medicines should not be used for 6 to 8 weeks after receiving ProQuad. These include:

  • aspirin or other salicylates. A serious condition called Reye Syndrome has been reported following the use of aspirin or other salicylate medicines during a natural chickenpox infection. Therefore, aspirin or other salicylates should be avoided for 6 weeks following vaccination with ProQuad.
  • Immune globulins. Your doctor will discuss with you the possible risks and benefits of having immune globulin injections in the 2 months following vaccination with ProQuad.

Use with other vaccines

ProQuad can be given at the same time as Haemophilus b conjugate, hepatitis B, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate, and hepatitis A (inactivated) vaccines. The injections should be given at different places on the body and using separate syringes. At least one month should elapse between a dose of ProQuad and all other vaccines. If a second dose of a varicella-containing vaccine is given, there should be a minimum of 1 month between doses. Your doctor will decide if ProQuad should be given with other vaccines.

How ProQuad is given

How much is given

The entire contents of the vial.

How it is given

ProQuad is usually injected just under the skin or into the muscle (subcutaneously or intramuscularly) of the upper arm or the upper thigh by a doctor or trained nurse.

If your child has a blood-clotting disorder or bleeds or bruises more easily, the vaccine should be given under the skin because bleeding may occur following administration into the muscle.

The vaccine should not be injected directly into veins (intravenously).

Vaccination schedule

ProQuad is given by injection to persons aged 12 months through 12 years of age. The appropriate time and number of injections will be determined by your doctor.

If your child misses a dose

If your child misses a scheduled dose, talk to your doctor and arrange another visit as soon as possible.

After your child has been given ProQuad

Things you must do

Keep a record of your child's vaccinations and update this after each injection.

Keep your child's follow-up appointment with your doctor or clinic.

If your child is about to be injected with any immune globulin (including varicella zoster) and your child has been injected with ProQuad within the past 2 months, tell your doctor.

If your child has been given ProQuad, avoid them coming into contact, for 6 weeks, with a person who falls into one of the following categories:

  • People with a weakened immune system
  • Pregnant women who have never had chickenpox
  • Newborn babies whose mothers have never had chickenpox

These people may be at risk of catching chickenpox from your child.

Things you must not do

Do not give aspirin or other salicylate medicines to your child for 6 weeks after being given ProQuad.

A serious condition called Reye Syndrome has been reported following the use of aspirin or other salicylate medicines during a natural chickenpox infection.

Side Effects

Tell your doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible if your child does not feel well during or after having had an injection of ProQuad.

ProQuad helps protect most people from measles, mumps, rubella and varicella, but it may have unwanted side effects in a few children. All medicines and vaccines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time they are not. Your child may need medical treatment if they get some of the side effects.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist to answer any questions you may have.

Tell your doctor if your child has any of the following and they are troublesome or ongoing:

  • pain, tenderness or soreness at the injection site
  • Local reaction around the injection site such as soreness, redness, swelling or bruising
  • Fever
  • Vomiting and diarrhoea
  • Rash including measles or varicella like rash, viral skin rash and injection site rash
  • Irritability
  • Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)
  • Swelling of the epididymis, a part of the male reproductive system
  • viral exanthema
  • vomiting and diarrhea

These are the more common side effects of ProQuad. For the most part these have been mild. They usually improve or disappear within a few days.

Other less common side effects have been reported with ProQuad, and some of these were serious. These included:

  • allergic reactions (see below)
  • Seizures with fever;
  • Cough and bronchiolitis;
  • Unsteadiness walking

Other adverse events have been reported with at least one of the following: ProQuad, M-M-R II, the monovalent components of M-M-R II or VARIVAX. These adverse events include:

  • Bruising more easily than normal
  • Red or purple, flat, pinhead spots under the skin
  • Severe paleness
  • Unusual bleeding or bruising under the skin
  • Swelling of the testicles
  • Tingling of the skin
  • Shingles (herpes zoster)†
  • Inflammation swelling or infection of the brain (encephalitis)†
  • Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis)†
  • Severe skin disorders
  • Skin infection
  • Chickenpox (varicella)
  • Stroke
  • Seizures without a fever
  • Joint pain and/or swelling (which could be transient or chronic)
  • Inflammation of the lung (pneumonia/pneumonitis)

†Can be from naturally occurring chickenpox or the vaccine in healthy individuals or individuals with lowered immunity in those given VARIVAX.

Tell your doctor immediately if you notice any of the above or any other unusual symptoms. If the condition persists or worsens, seek medical attention.

These are serious side effects. Your child may need urgent medical attention. Serious side effects are rare.

Tell your doctor immediately or go to accident and emergency at your nearest hospital if you or your child get any of the following:

  • a seizure or convulsion, which may or may not be accompanied by a very high fever
  • headache and fever, progressing to hallucinations, confusion, stiff neck and sensitivity to light
  • pain, numbness, or tingling of the hands, arms, legs or feet
  • fainting
  • severe blisters with bleeding in the lips, eyes, mouth, nose or genitals

These are serious side effects. You may need urgent medical attention. Serious side effects are rare.

Allergic Reaction:

As with all vaccines given by injection, there is a very small risk of a serious allergic reaction.

Tell your doctor immediately or go to accident and emergency if you notice any of the following:

  • wheezing or shortness of breath
  • swelling of the face, lips, mouth, throat or neck which may cause difficulty in swallowing or breathing
  • swelling of the hands, feet, or ankles
  • pinkish, itchy swellings on the skin, also called hives or nettlerash
  • skin rash, itchiness

If your child has these, your child may have had a serious allergic reaction to ProQuad. Your child may need urgent medical attention or hospitalisation. Most of these side effects occur within 15-30 minutes of vaccination, before your child leave the doctor's surgery or clinic.

Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some people. Tell your doctor if you notice any other effects.

Do not be alarmed by this list of possible side effects. Your child may not experience any of them.

Storage

ProQuad is usually stored in the doctor's surgery or clinic, or at the pharmacy. However if you need to store ProQuad:

  • Keep it where children cannot reach it.
  • Keep it in the refrigerator where the temperature is between 2°C and 8°C, but not in the door compartment, until ready to use. ProQuad is stable for up to 18 months when stored in the refrigerator. THE VACCINE SHOULD NOT BE FROZEN.
  • Protect the injection from light by keeping it in the original pack until it is time for it to be given.

Product description

What it looks like

ProQuad comes as white to pale yellow powder in glass vials. It is reconstituted with a special diluent to make a solution suitable for injection.

Ingredients

The active ingredients of ProQuad are weakened strains of measles, mumps, rubella (German measles) and varicella viruses.

Inactive ingredients:

  • sucrose
  • hydrolysed porcine gelatin
  • urea
  • sodium chloride
  • sorbitol
  • monosodium glutamate monohydrate
  • monobasic sodium phosphate
  • dibasic sodium phosphate
  • sodium bicarbonate
  • monobasic potassium phosphate
  • potassium chloride
  • dibasic potassium phosphate
  • neomycin
  • phenolsulfonphthalein

This product also contains residual components of recombinant human albumin, bovine serum albumin and other buffer and media ingredients.

The manufacture of this product includes exposure to bovine derived materials. No evidence exists that any case of vCJD (considered to be the human form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy) has resulted from the administration of any vaccine product.

Supplier

ProQuad is supplied in Australia by:

Seqirus Pty Ltd
63 Poplar Road
PARKVILLE VIC 3052

This leaflet was prepared in May 2020.

Australian Register Numbers:

ProQuad vial AUST R 126153

ProQuad vial and sterile diluent syringe AUST R 126157

(S-WPPI-V221-I-ref-122019)

Published by MIMS July 2020

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

ProQuad

Active ingredient

Measles vaccine, live; Mumps vaccine, live; Rubella vaccine, live; Varicella zoster vaccine, live attenuated

Schedule

S4

 

Notes

Sponsored by Merck Sharp and Dohme (Australia) Pty Ltd

1 Name of Medicine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella (Oka/Merck) Virus Vaccine Live.

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

Chemical structure.

Not applicable.

CAS number.

Not applicable.

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

ProQuad is a sterile lyophilised preparation of (1) the components of M-M-R II (Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live): measles virus vaccine live, a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders' attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Mumps Virus Vaccine Live, the Jeryl Lynn (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts; and (2) Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Oka/Merck), the Oka/Merck strain of varicella-zoster virus propagated in MRC-5 cells (hereafter referred to as Varivax).
ProQuad, when reconstituted as directed, is a sterile preparation for intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) administration. Each 0.5 mL dose contains not less than 3.00 log10 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) of measles virus; 4.30 log10 TCID50 of mumps virus; 3.00 log10 TCID50 of rubella virus; and a minimum of 3.99 log10 PFU (plaque-forming units) of Oka/Merck varicella virus.
Powder for injection.
Before reconstitution, the lyophilised vaccine is a white to pale yellow compact crystalline powder. ProQuad, when reconstituted, is a clear pale yellow to light pink liquid.

Excipients with known effect.

The vaccine contains 16 mg of sorbitol.
For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.
This product also contains residual components of MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein, recombinant human albumin, bovine serum albumin and other buffer and media ingredients.
This product contains no preservative.
The cells, virus pools, bovine serum, and recombinant human albumin used in manufacturing are all screened to ensure the absence of adventitious agents.
The manufacture of this product includes exposure to bovine derived material. No evidence exists that any case of vCJD (considered to be the human form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy) has resulted from the administration of any vaccine product.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

See Section 2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition.

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Mechanism of action.

ProQuad is a combined attenuated live virus vaccine containing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella viruses.
Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella are 4 common childhood diseases caused by measles virus, mumps virus, rubella virus, and varicella virus, respectively. These diseases may be associated with serious complications and/or death. For example, measles can be associated with pneumonia and encephalitis; mumps can be associated with aseptic meningitis, deafness, and orchitis; rubella occurring during pregnancy can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the infants of infected mothers; and wild-type varicella can be associated with bacterial superinfection, pneumonia, encephalitis, and Reye syndrome.

Clinical trials.

Efficacy.

Formal studies to evaluate the efficacy of ProQuad have not been performed. However, the efficacy of M-M-R II and Varivax has been demonstrated in numerous studies.
Efficacy of the measles, mumps, and rubella components of ProQuad was previously established in a series of double-blind controlled field trials with the monovalent vaccines produced by Merck, which demonstrated a high degree of protective efficacy. In these studies seroconversion in response to vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella paralleled protection from these diseases. ProQuad elicits rates of antibody responses against measles, mumps, and rubella similar to those observed after vaccination with M-M-R II.
More than 518 million doses of M-M-R II have been distributed worldwide (1978 to 2007). Widespread use of a 2-dose vaccination schedule in the United States and countries such as Finland and Sweden has led to a > 99% reduction in the incidence of each of the 3 targeted diseases. Vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of these diseases.
In combined clinical trials of Varivax, the protective efficacy of the vaccine against all forms of varicella ranged from 81 to 100%. In a large case-control study, the vaccine was estimated to be 85% effective against all forms of varicella and 97% effective against moderately severe and severe disease. Long-term estimated efficacy for the vaccine against all forms of varicella over 10 years was 94%. Antibody responses against varicella virus ≥ 5 units/mL in the glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA, a highly sensitive assay which is not commercially available) have been shown to be highly correlated with long-term protection. Clinical studies have shown that vaccination with ProQuad elicits rates of antibody responses against varicella virus ≥ 5 units/mL in the gpELISA similar to those observed after vaccination with Varivax.

Immunogenicity.

Immunogenicity was studied in children 12 through 23 months of age with a negative clinical history of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella who participated in 5 randomised clinical trials. The immunogenicity of the current refrigerator-stable formulation was shown to be similar to the immunogenicity of the earlier formulation of ProQuad in a single study. In this study, 1006 subjects were vaccinated with the refrigerator-stable formulation and 513 were vaccinated with the frozen formulation. Four clinical trials had previously established that the earlier formulation of ProQuad was similar to the individual component vaccines (M-M-R II and Varivax, which are currently used in routine vaccination in some countries.
Thus, there were a total of 5 clinical trials involving 6987 subjects who received either the refrigerator stable formulation of ProQuad or the frozen formulation of ProQuad. These clinical trials demonstrated detectable immune responses to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in a high proportion of individuals. The presence of detectable antibody was assessed by an appropriately sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measles, mumps (wild-type and vaccine-type strains), and rubella, and by gpELISA for varicella. Following a single dose of ProQuad, the vaccine response rates were 97.7% for measles, 96.3 to 98.8% for mumps, and 98.8% for rubella. The vaccine response rate was 90.9% for varicella based on an antibody response rate ≥ 5 gpELISA units/mL (a response rate that has been shown to be highly correlated with long-term protection). These results were similar to the immune response rates induced by concomitant administration of M-M-R II and Varivax at separate injection sites (see Table 1).

Children who received a second dose of ProQuad.

In 2 clinical trials, 1035 subjects were administered a second dose of the frozen formulation of ProQuad approximately 3 months after the first dose. The vaccine response rates were 99.4% for measles, 99.9% for mumps, 98.3% for rubella, and 99.4% for varicella (≥ 5 gpELISA units/mL). The geometric mean titers (GMTs) following the second dose of ProQuad increased approximately 2-fold each for measles, mumps, and rubella, and approximately 41-fold for varicella. In these trials, the rates of adverse experiences after the second dose of ProQuad were generally similar to, or lower than, those seen with the first dose. The fever rate was lower after the second dose than after the first dose.

Children who received 2 doses of ProQuad intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

In a clinical trial, 405 children received 2 doses of ProQuad, either by the intramuscular or subcutaneous route of administration. Two doses of ProQuad administered by the IM route of administration were as immunogenic as two doses administered by the SC route in terms of antibody response rates and antibody titers to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella.

Children who received the earlier formulation of ProQuad at 4 through 6 years of age after primary vaccination with M-M-R II and Varivax.

The immunogenicity and safety of the frozen formulation of ProQuad were evaluated in a clinical trial involving 799 subjects 4 through 6 years of age who had received M-M-R II and Varivax at least 1 month prior to study entry. Following the dose of ProQuad, GMTs for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella were similar to those following a second dose of M-M-R II and Varivax administered concomitantly at separate injection sites. Additionally, GMTs for measles, mumps, and rubella were similar to those following a second dose of M-M-R II given concomitantly with placebo. In this trial, the rates and types of adverse experiences seen in the group that received ProQuad were generally similar to those seen in the control groups (see Table 2).

Persistence of immune response.

The persistence of antibody at 1 year after vaccination was evaluated in a subset of 2108 subjects who were involved in 1 clinical trial using the frozen formulation of ProQuad. The antibody persistence rates 1 year postvaccination in recipients of a single dose of ProQuad were 98.9% (1722/1741) for measles, 96.7% (1676/1733) for mumps, 99.6% (1796/1804) for rubella, and 97.5% (1512/1550) for varicella (≥ 5 gpELISA units/mL).
Experience with M-M-R II demonstrates that antibodies to measles, mumps and rubella viruses are still detectable in most individuals 11 to 13 years after primary vaccination. In clinical studies involving healthy subjects who received 1 dose of Varivax, detectable varicella antibodies were present in most individuals tested for up to 10 years postvaccination.

Herpes zoster.

In a clinical trial, 2 cases of herpes zoster were reported in 2108 healthy subjects 12 through 23 months of age who were vaccinated with the frozen formulation of ProQuad and followed for 1 year. Both cases were unremarkable and no sequelae were reported.
The reported rate of zoster in recipients of Varivax appears not to exceed that previously determined in a population-based study of healthy children who had experienced wild-type varicella. In clinical trials, 12 cases of herpes zoster were reported in 9543 vaccinated individuals 12 months through 12 years of age during 84,414 person-years of follow-up. This resulted in a calculated incidence of at least 0.14 cases per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of herpes zoster following naturally acquired infection in subjects > 5 years of age and persons 5 to 9 years of age has been reported to be 1.1 and 0.51 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. All 12 cases reported after Varivax were mild and no sequelae were reported. The long-term effect of Varivax on the incidence of herpes zoster is unknown at present.

Reye syndrome.

Reye syndrome following wild-type varicella infection has occurred in children and adolescents, the majority of whom received salicylates. In clinical studies using both formulations of ProQuad and in the clinical studies of Varivax, physicians advised subjects not to use salicylates for 6 weeks after vaccination. There were no reports of Reye syndrome in recipients of ProQuad or Varivax during these studies.

Studies with other vaccines.

In a clinical trial involving 1913 healthy subjects 12 through 15 months of age, 949 received the frozen formulation of ProQuad, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed (DTaP) and Haemophilus b conjugate (meningococcal protein conjugate) and hepatitis B (recombinant) vaccine concomitantly at separate injection sites. Another 485 healthy subjects received ProQuad at the initial visit followed by DTaP and Haemophilus b conjugate and hepatitis B (recombinant) vaccine given concomitantly 6 weeks later. In subjects 13.5 months of age or older, seroconversion rates and antibody titers were comparable between the 2 groups at approximately 6 weeks postvaccination. However, in subjects less than 13.5 months of age, seroconversion rates and antibody titers were comparable between the 2 groups for each of the vaccine components except pertussis FHA (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions). No clinically significant differences in adverse experiences were reported between the 2 treatment groups.

ProQuad administered with pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (Prevnar1).

In a clinical trial involving 1027 healthy children 12 through 15 months of age, 510 were randomised to receive ProQuad and Prevnar concomitantly at separate injection sites, and 517 were randomised to receive ProQuad and Prevnar non-concomitantly. Seroconversion rates and antibody titers for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and S. pneumoniae types 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F were comparable in the concomitant and non-concomitant groups at 6 weeks post-vaccination indicating that ProQuad and Prevnar can be administered concomitantly at separate injection sites. No clinically significant differences in adverse events were reported between treatment groups.
In a clinical trial involving 1800 healthy children 12 through 23 months of age, 1453 were randomised to receive 2 doses of Vaqta, and 347 were randomised to receive 2 doses of Vaqta concomitantly with 2 doses ProQuad at least 6 months apart. Rates of adverse experiences were lower following a second dose than following the first dose of both vaccines given concomitantly.
1Trademark of Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Licensed in Australia as Prevenar.

ProQuad administered with pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine and/or hepatitis A (Vaqta).

In a clinical trial involving 653 healthy children 12 through 15 months of age, 330 were randomised to receive ProQuad and Prevnar concomitantly followed by Vaqta 6 weeks later. Seroconversion rates and antibody titers for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and S. pneumoniae types 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F were comparable between the 3 groups at 6 weeks post-vaccination indicating that ProQuad, Vaqta and Prevnar can be administered concomitantly at separate injection sites. No clinically significant differences in adverse events were reported among treatment groups.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

Absorption.

Not applicable.

Distribution.

Not applicable.

Metabolism.

Not applicable.

Excretion.

Not applicable.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Genotoxicity.

Mutagenicity.

ProQuad has not been evaluated for its mutagenic potential.

Carcinogenicity.

ProQuad has not been evaluated for its carcinogenic potential.

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

ProQuad is indicated for vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in individuals 12 months through 12 years of age.

4.3 Contraindications

History of hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including gelatin.
History of anaphylactoid reaction to neomycin.
Blood dyscrasias, leukaemia, lymphomas of any type, or other malignant neoplasms affecting the bone marrow or lymphatic system.
Immunosuppressive therapy (including high-dose corticosteroids); however, ProQuad is not contraindicated for use in individuals who are receiving topical corticosteroids or low-dose corticosteroids, as are commonly used for asthma prophylaxis or in patients who are receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, e.g. for Addison's disease. Vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine, such as varicella, can result in a more extensive vaccine-associated rash or disseminated disease in individuals on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids. Individuals who are on immunosuppressant drugs are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals.
Primary and acquired immunodeficiency states, including immunosuppression in association with AIDS or other clinical manifestations of infection with human immunodeficiency viruses; cellular immune deficiencies; and hypogammaglobulinaemic and dysgammaglobulinaemic states. Measles inclusion body encephalitis, pneumonitis, and death as a direct consequence of disseminated measles vaccine virus infection have been reported in severely immunocompromised individuals inadvertently vaccinated with measles-containing vaccine.
Family history of congenital or hereditary immunodeficiency, unless the immune competence of the potential vaccine recipient is demonstrated.
Active untreated tuberculosis.
Any active febrile illness with fever > 38.5°C (> 101.3°F); however, low grade fever itself is not a contraindication to vaccination.
Pregnancy; the possible effects of the vaccine on foetal development are unknown at this time. If vaccination of postpubertal females is undertaken, pregnancy should be avoided for 3 months following vaccination. (See Section 4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation, Use in pregnancy.)

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

General.

Adequate treatment provisions, including adrenaline (epinephrine) injection (1:1000), should be available for immediate use should an anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction occur.
Due caution should be employed in administration of ProQuad to persons with individual or family history of convulsions, a history of cerebral injury or any other condition in which stress due to fever should be avoided. The physician should be alert to the temperature elevation that may occur following vaccination (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)).
The safety and efficacy of ProQuad have not been established in individuals who are known to be infected with human immunodeficiency viruses with or without evidence of immunosuppression (see Section 4.3 Contraindications).
The duration of protection from measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella infection after vaccination with ProQuad is unknown (see Section 5 Pharmacological Properties).
As for any vaccine, vaccination with ProQuad may not result in protection in all vaccine recipients.

Transmission.

Excretion of small amounts of the live attenuated rubella virus from the nose or throat has occurred in the majority of susceptible individuals 7 to 28 days after vaccination. There is no confirmed evidence to indicate that such virus is transmitted to susceptible persons who are in contact with the vaccinated individuals. Consequently, transmission through close personal contact, while accepted as a theoretical possibility, is not regarded as a significant risk. However, transmission of the rubella vaccine virus to infants via breast milk has been documented (see Section 4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation, Use in lactation).
There are no reports of transmission of the more attenuated Enders' Edmonston strain of measles virus or the Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus from vaccine recipients to susceptible contacts.
Post-licensing experience suggests that transmission of varicella vaccine virus (Oka/Merck) resulting in varicella infection including disseminated disease may occur rarely between vaccine recipients (who develop or do not develop a varicella-like rash) and contacts susceptible to varicella including healthy as well as high-risk individuals.
High-risk individuals susceptible to varicella include:
Immunocompromised individuals (see Section 4.3 Contraindications);
Pregnant women without documented positive history of varicella (chickenpox) or laboratory evidence of prior infection;
Newborn infants of mothers without documented positive history of varicella or laboratory evidence of prior infection.
Vaccine recipients should attempt to avoid, whenever possible, close association with high-risk individuals susceptible to varicella for up to 6 weeks following vaccination. In circumstances where contact with high risk individuals susceptible to varicella is unavoidable, the potential risk of transmission of the varicella vaccine virus should be weighed against the risk of acquiring and transmitting wild-type varicella virus.

Hypersensitivity to eggs.

Live measles vaccine and live mumps vaccine are produced in chick embryo cell culture. Persons with a history of anaphylactic, anaphylactoid, or other immediate reactions (e.g. hives, swelling of the mouth and throat, difficulty breathing, hypotension, or shock) subsequent to egg ingestion may be at an enhanced risk of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions after receiving vaccines containing traces of chick embryo antigen. The potential risk-to-benefit ratio should be carefully evaluated before considering vaccination in such cases. Such individuals may be vaccinated with extreme caution, having adequate treatment on hand should a reaction occur.

Thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders.

This vaccine should be given subcutaneously to individuals with thrombocytopenia or any coagulation disorder because bleeding may occur following an intramuscular administration in these individuals.
No clinical data are available regarding the development or worsening of thrombocytopenia in individuals vaccinated with ProQuad. Cases of thrombocytopenia have been reported in post-marketing experience after primary vaccination with ProQuad. In addition, cases of thrombocytopenia have been reported after primary vaccination or revaccination with measles vaccine; with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; and with varicella vaccine. Post-marketing experience with live measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine indicates that individuals with current thrombocytopenia may develop more severe thrombocytopenia following vaccination. In addition, individuals who experienced thrombocytopenia following the first dose of a live measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine may develop thrombocytopenia with repeat doses. Serologic status may be evaluated to determine whether or not additional doses of vaccine are needed. The potential risk-to-benefit ratio should be carefully evaluated before considering vaccination with ProQuad in such cases (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)).

Post-exposure prophylaxis.

No clinical data are available for ProQuad frozen administered after exposure to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella; however, post-exposure prophylaxis has been demonstrated for measles and varicella with measles-containing vaccine and varicella virus vaccine, respectively. Vaccination of susceptible individuals within 3 days of exposure to wild type measles may provide some protection. Vaccination of susceptible individuals within 3 days of exposure to wild-type varicella may prevent a clinically apparent infection or modify the course of the infection. In addition, there are limited data that indicate that vaccination up to 5 days after exposure to varicella may modify the course of the infection.

Adolescents and adults.

No clinical data are available on the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of ProQuad in adolescents and adults.

Tuberculin test.

It has been reported that live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccines given individually may result in a temporary depression of tuberculin skin sensitivity. Therefore, if a tuberculin test is to be done, it should be administered either any time before, simultaneously with, or at least 4 to 6 weeks after ProQuad.

Tuberculosis.

Children under treatment for tuberculosis have not experienced exacerbation of the disease when vaccinated with live measles virus vaccine; no studies have been reported to date of the effect of measles virus vaccines on children with untreated tuberculosis.

Use in the elderly.

No data available.

Paediatric use.

ProQuad has not been studied in infants less than 12 months of age and is not recommended for administration in this age group.

Effects on laboratory tests.

See Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Tuberculin test.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

Administration of immune globulins (IG) concomitantly with ProQuad may interfere with the expected immune response. Vaccination should be deferred for at least 3 months following blood or plasma transfusions, or administration of IG. However, the appropriate suggested interval between transfusion or IG administration and vaccination will vary with the type of transfusion or indication for, and dose of, IG (e.g. 5 months for VZIG).
Following administration of ProQuad, any IG including VZIG should not be given for 1 month thereafter unless its use outweighs the benefits of vaccination.
Vaccine recipients should avoid use of salicylates for 6 weeks after vaccination with ProQuad as Reye syndrome has been reported following the use of salicylates during wild-type varicella infection.

Concomitant use with other vaccines.

At least 1 month should elapse between a dose of M-M-R II and a dose of ProQuad. If for any reason a second dose of varicella-containing vaccine is required, at least 1 month should elapse between administration of the 2 doses.
The fourth dose of DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis vaccine) is indicated for children 15 months of age and older. Limited data suggest that ProQuad may be administered concomitantly (at separate injection sites) with DTaP in children 15 months of age and older (for children less than 15 months of age, see Section 5 Pharmacological Properties).
Results from clinical studies indicate that ProQuad may be administered concomitantly with Haemophilus b conjugate (meningococcal protein conjugate), hepatitis B (recombinant), pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate and/or hepatitis A vaccines for children 12 to 15 months of age.
There are no data for the administration of ProQuad with inactivated poliovirus vaccine.
There are no data for concurrent administration of ProQuad and DTaP containing vaccines registered in Australia (see Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties, Studies with other vaccines).

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

Impairment of fertility.

ProQuad has not been evaluated for its potential to impair fertility.

Females of childbearing age.

In females of childbearing age, pregnancy should be avoided for 3 months following vaccination (see Use in pregnancy).
(Category B2)
Studies have not been conducted with ProQuad in pregnant women. It is also not known whether ProQuad can cause harm to the foetus when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Therefore, ProQuad should not be administered to pregnant females; furthermore, pregnancy should be avoided for 3 months following vaccination (see Section 4.1 Therapeutic Indications; Section 4.3 Contraindications).
In counseling women who are inadvertently vaccinated when pregnant or who become pregnant within 3 months of vaccination, the physician should be aware of the following: (1) Reports have indicated that contracting wild-type measles during pregnancy enhances foetal risk. Increased rates of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, congenital defects and prematurity have been observed subsequent to wild-type measles during pregnancy. There are no adequate studies of the attenuated (vaccine) strain of measles virus in pregnancy. However, it would be prudent to assume that the vaccine strain of virus is also capable of inducing adverse foetal effects; (2) Mumps infection during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the rate of spontaneous abortion. Although mumps vaccine virus has been shown to infect the placenta and foetus, there is no evidence that it causes congenital malformations in humans; (3) In a 15-year survey involving over 1100 pregnant women who received rubella vaccine within 3 months before or after conception (of whom 635 received the Wistar RA 27/3 strain), none of the newborns had abnormalities compatible with congenital rubella syndrome; and (4) Wild-type varicella can sometimes cause harm to the foetus.
In the first 10 years of the Pregnancy Registry for varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck), of 139 seronegative women and 449 women of unknown serostatus who received varicella vaccine during pregnancy or within 3 months before pregnancy, none had newborns with abnormalities compatible with congenital varicella syndrome.
It is not known whether measles, mumps, or varicella virus is secreted in human milk. Studies have shown that lactating postpartum women vaccinated with live attenuated rubella vaccine may secrete the virus in breast milk and transmit it to breast-fed infants. In the infants who developed serological evidence of rubella infection, none exhibited severe disease; however, one exhibited mild clinical illness typical of acquired rubella. Therefore, caution should be exercised when ProQuad is administered to a nursing woman.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Children 12 through 23 months of age.

In clinical trials, ProQuad was administered alone to 6038 children 12 through 23 months of age. ProQuad was generally well tolerated.
Children received either the refrigerator-stable formulation or the frozen formulation of ProQuad and were monitored for 6 weeks post vaccination. The safety profiles were similar for the two formulations. The safety of the frozen formulation of ProQuad was compared with the safety of M-M-R II and Varivax given concomitantly at separate injection sites. The safety profile for ProQuad was similar to the component vaccines.
The only systemic vaccine-related adverse experiences that were reported at a significantly greater rate in individuals who received ProQuad than in individuals who received M-M-R II and Varivax concomitantly at separate injection sites were fever (≥ 38.9°C [≥ 102°F] oral equivalent or abnormal) (21.5% versus 14.9%, respectively), and measles-like rash (3.0% versus 2.1%, respectively). Both fever and measles-like rash usually occurred within 5 to 12 days following the vaccination, were of short duration, and resolved with no long-term sequelae. Pain/tenderness/soreness at the injection site was reported at a statistically lower rate in individuals who received ProQuad than in individuals who received M-M-R II and Varivax concomitantly at separate injection sites (22.0% versus 26.7%, respectively). The only vaccine-related injection site adverse experience that was more frequent among recipients of ProQuad than recipients of M-M-R II and Varivax was rash at the injection site (2.3% versus 1.5%, respectively).
Across clinical studies, the following adverse experiences were reported as vaccine related by the investigator in individuals after a single dose of ProQuad (excluding single events with a frequency ≤ 0.02%). Several adverse experiences were solicited in the clinical studies and are designated with the symbol (*).
[Very common (≥ 1/10); Common (≥ 1/100, < 1/10); Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000, < 1/100); Rare (≥ 1/10,000, < 1/1,000)].

Infections and infestations.

Common: upper respiratory infection.
Uncommon: gastroenteritis, ear infection/otitis, nasopharyngitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, roseola, viral infection, viral rash.
Rare: bronchiolitis, candidiasis, infectious croup, tonsillitis, varicella*, viral gastroenteritis.

Blood and lymphatic disorders.

Rare: lymphadenopathy.

Immune system disorders.

Rare: allergy/hypersensitivity.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders.

Uncommon: anorexia, decreased appetite.

Psychiatric disorders.

Common: irritability.
Uncommon: crying, insomnia, sleep disorder.
Rare: agitation, clinging, emotional changes.

Nervous system disorders.

Uncommon: febrile seizure (see below), somnolence.
Rare: ataxia, headache, lethargy.

Eye disorders.

Rare: conjunctivitis, tearing, visual discomfort.

Ear and labyrinth disorders.

Rare: ear pain.

Vascular disorders.

Rare: flushing.

Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders.

Uncommon: cough, nasal congestion, respiratory congestion, rhinorrhoea.
Rare: wheezing.

Gastrointestinal disorders.

Common: diarrhoea, vomiting.
Rare: flatulence, nausea, teething.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders.

Common: measles-like rash*, rash, varicella-like rash*.
Uncommon: dermatitis (including contact, atopic, and diaper rash), eczema, erythema, miliaria rubra/heat rash, rubella-like rash*, urticaria, viral exanthema.
Rare: acne, drug eruption, exanthema.

General disorders and administration site conditions.

Very common: fever ≥ 38.9°C ([≥ 102°F] oral equivalent or abnormal)*, erythema* or pain/tenderness/soreness* at the injection site.
Common: ecchymosis or swelling* at the injection site, injection site rash*.
Uncommon: asthenia/fatigue, induration or warmth at the injection site, injection site haemorrhage, injection site mass/lump, malaise.
Rare: flu-like/influenza-like illness, injection site discoloration, injection site reaction, pain, pain/tenderness/soreness.

Injury and poisoning, and procedural complications.

Rare: contusion, non-venomous bite/sting.

Other adverse experiences.

Additionally, adverse experiences reported with post-marketing use of ProQuad and/or in clinical studies and/or post-marketing use of M-M-R II, the component vaccines, and Varivax without regard to causality or frequency are summarized below.

Infections and infestations.

Atypical measles, cellulitis, epididymitis, herpes zoster#, infection, influenza, measles, orchitis, parotitis, respiratory infection, skin infection, varicella (vaccine strain).

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders.

Aplastic anaemia, lymphadenitis, regional lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia.

Immune system disorders.

Anaphylactoid reaction, anaphylaxis and related phenomenon such as angioneurotic oedema, facial oedema, and peripheral oedema, anaphylaxis in individuals with or without an allergic history.

Psychiatric disorders.

Apathy, nervousness.

Nervous system disorders.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), afebrile convulsions or seizures, aseptic meningitis (see below), Bell's palsy, cerebrovascular accident, dizziness, dream abnormality, encephalitis# (see below), encephalopathy (see below), Guillain-Barre syndrome, hypersomnia, measles inclusion body encephalitis (see Section 4.3 Contraindications), meningitis#, ocular palsies, paraesthesia, polyneuritis, polyneuropathy, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (see below), syncope, transverse myelitis, tremor.
#Cases caused by wild-type varicella or vaccine strain varicella have been reported in immunocompromised or immunocompetent individuals administered Varivax (same varicella vaccine strain as in ProQuad).

Eye disorders.

Oedema of the eyelid, irritation, necrotising retinitis (reported only in immunocompromised individuals), optic neuritis, retinitis, retrobulbar neuritis.

Ear and labyrinth disorders.

Nerve deafness.

Vascular disorders.

Extravasation.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders.

Bronchial spasm, bronchitis, epistaxis, pneumonitis (see Section 4.3 Contraindications), pneumonia, pulmonary congestion, rhinitis, sinusitis, sneezing, sore throat.

Gastrointestinal disorders.

Abdominal pain, haematochezia, mouth ulcer.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders.

Erythema multiforme, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, herpes simplex, impetigo, panniculitis, pruritus, purpura, skin induration, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, sunburn, acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy.

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders.

Arthritis and/or arthralgia (usually transient and rarely chronic [see below]), musculoskeletal pain, myalgia, pain of the hip, leg, or neck, swelling.

General disorders and administration site conditions.

Injection site complaints (burning and/or stinging of short duration, eczema, oedema/swelling, hive-like rash, haematoma, induration, lump, vesicles, wheal and flare), inflammation, lip abnormality, papillitis, roughness/dryness, stiffness, trauma, varicella-like rash, venipuncture site haemorrhage, warm sensation, warm to touch.

Children who received ProQuad intramuscularly.

The general safety profiles of the IM and SC administration routes were comparable.

Post-marketing safety surveillance.

Death from various, and in some cases unknown, causes has been reported rarely following vaccination with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines; however, a causal relationship has not been established in healthy individuals (see Section 4.3 Contraindications). No deaths or permanent sequelae were reported in a published post-marketing surveillance study in Finland involving 1.5 million children and adults who were vaccinated with M-M-R II during 1982 to 1993.
Encephalitis and encephalopathy have been reported approximately once for every 3 million doses of the combination of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine contained in M-M-R II. Since 1978, post-marketing surveillance of M-M-R II indicates that serious adverse events such as encephalitis and encephalopathy continue to be rarely reported. The risk of such serious neurological disorders following live measles virus vaccine administration remains far less than that for encephalitis and encephalopathy with wild-type measles (1 per 1000 reported cases).
In severely immunocompromised individuals inadvertently vaccinated with measles-containing vaccine, measles inclusion body encephalitis, pneumonitis, and fatal outcome as a direct consequence of disseminated measles vaccine virus infection have been reported (see Section 4.3 Contraindications); disseminated mumps and rubella vaccine virus infection have also been reported.
Arthralgia and/or arthritis (usually transient and rarely chronic), and polyneuritis are features of infection with wild-type rubella and vary in frequency and severity with age and gender, being greatest in adult females and least in prepubertal children. Following vaccination in children, reactions in joints are generally uncommon (0 to 3%) and of brief duration. In women, incidence rates for arthritis and arthralgia are generally higher than those seen in children (12 to 20%), and the reactions tend to be more marked and of longer duration. Symptoms may persist for a matter of months or on rare occasions for years. In adolescent girls, the reactions appear to be intermediate in incidence between those seen in children and adult women. Even in older women (35 to 45 years), these reactions are generally well tolerated and rarely interfere with normal activities.
Chronic arthritis has been associated with wild-type rubella infection and has been related to persistent virus and/or viral antigen isolated from body tissues. Only rarely have vaccine recipients developed chronic joint symptoms.
There have been reports of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in children who did not have a history of infection with wild-type measles but did receive measles vaccine. Some of these cases may have resulted from unrecognized measles in the first year of life or possibly from the measles vaccination. Based on estimated measles vaccine distribution in the United States (US), the association of SSPE cases to measles vaccination is about one case per million vaccine doses distributed. This is far less than the association with infection with wild-type measles, 6 to 22 cases of SSPE per million cases of measles. The results of a retrospective case-controlled study conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that the overall effect of measles vaccine has been to protect against SSPE by preventing measles with its inherent higher risk of SSPE.
Cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. Although a causal relationship between other strains of mumps vaccine and aseptic meningitis has been shown, there is no evidence to link Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine to aseptic meningitis.
Febrile seizures have been reported in children receiving ProQuad. A post-marketing observational study was conducted in 31,298 children 12 to 60 months of age who received their first dose of ProQuad, 99% of whom were in their second year of life. These children had not received prior M-M-R and varicella vaccinations and had not had measles, mumps, rubella, or varicella wild-type infections. In this population, the incidence of febrile seizures 5 to 12 days after vaccination with the first dose of ProQuad was 0.7 per 1000 children (n=22). This incidence was two-fold higher than the incidence (0.3 per 1000 children, n=10) observed in children from a historical, age- and gender-matched control group (n=31,298) vaccinated concomitantly with M-M-R II and Varivax. The febrile seizures relative risk (RR) was 2.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04, 4.65). In the 0 to 30 day time period following vaccination, the incidence of febrile seizures with ProQuad (1.4 per 1000 children, n=44) was not greater than that observed in children receiving M-M-R II and Varivax concomitantly (1.3 per 1000 children, n=40).
In the 3 post-licensure clinical trials evaluating the concomitant use of ProQuad with other paediatric vaccines, a total of 1745 children 12 through 23 months of age received 2 doses of ProQuad, of which 1661 completed safety follow-up after both doses. Rates of adverse experiences after the second dose of ProQuad were generally similar to, or lower than, those seen with the first dose. The fever rate was lower after the second dose than after the first dose.

Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

Dosage.

Individuals aged 12 months to 12 years should receive a single dose of ProQuad administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
If the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine is given between 6 months of age and less than 12 months of age (in an at-risk situation such as measles outbreak, or due to official recommendations) the response to the vaccine may be adversely influenced by circulating maternal antibodies. Therefore, another dose of a measles-containing vaccine should be given at 12 months of age or later. A subsequent (third) dose can be administered if warranted by official recommendations for a measles-containing vaccine.
At least one month should elapse between a dose of M-M-R II and ProQuad. If a second dose of varicella-containing vaccine is administered, there should be a minimum interval of 1 month between doses.
Do not give immune globulin (IG) or Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin (VZIG) concomitantly with ProQuad (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions).

Method of administration.

For subcutaneous or intramuscular administration. Do not inject intravascularly.
The vaccine is to be injected in the deltoid region of the upper arm or in the higher anterolateral area of the thigh.
The vaccine should be administered subcutaneously in patients with thrombocytopenia or any coagulation disorder.

Caution.

A sterile syringe free of preservatives, antiseptics, detergents, and other antiviral substances must be used for each injection and/or reconstitution of ProQuad because these substances may inactivate the vaccine viruses.
To reconstitute the vaccine, use only the diluent supplied because it is free of preservatives or other antiviral substances, which might inactivate the vaccine viruses. The diluent may be supplied in a separate carton.
It is important to use a separate sterile syringe and needle for each patient to prevent transmission of infectious agents from one individual to another.
The vials are for single use in one patient only.
Withdraw the entire volume of solvent into a syringe (if a prefilled syringe is available, this step is not necessary). Inject the entire content of the syringe into the vial containing the powder. Gently agitate to dissolve completely. Withdraw the entire content of the reconstituted vaccine from the vial into the same syringe and inject the entire volume.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
It is recommended that the vaccine be administered immediately after reconstitution, to minimize loss of potency. Discard if reconstituted vaccine is not used within 60 minutes (1 hour) when stored at 20°C to 25°C or within 150 minutes (2.5 hours) when stored at 2°C to 8°C.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

The effects of this medicine on a person's ability to drive and use machines were not assessed as part of its registration.

4.9 Overdose

There are no data with regard to overdose.
For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poison Information Centre on 131126 (Australia).

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

Schedule 4 - Prescription Medicine.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

Sucrose, hydrolysed porcine gelatin, urea, sodium chloride, sorbitol, monosodium glutamate monohydrate, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, monobasic potassium phosphate, dibasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, neomycin, phenolsulfonphthalein.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable. Please see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions for further information.

6.3 Shelf Life

The expiry date can be found on the packaging. In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG).

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

During shipment to ensure that there is no loss of potency, the vaccine must be maintained at a temperature of ≤ 8°C, but not exceed temperatures lower than -50°C (-58°F). Use of dry ice may subject ProQuad to temperatures colder than -50°C (-58°F).
Immediately upon receipt of the vaccine shipment, the vaccine must be kept in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2°C to 8°C until ready for use. The vaccine should not be frozen.
Before reconstitution, ProQuad has a shelf life of 18 months when refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C.
Do not store lyophilised vaccine at room temperature.
If lyophilised vaccine is inadvertently stored at room temperature, it should be discarded.
Protect the vaccine from light at all times since such exposure may inactivate the vaccine viruses.
Discard if reconstituted vaccine is not used within 60 minutes (1 hour) when stored at 20°C to 25°C or within 150 minutes (2.5 hours) when stored at 2°C to 8°C.
The diluent should be stored separately at room temperature (20°C to 25°C), or in the refrigerator (2°C to 8°C).

Composite packs containing the vaccine vial and diluent.

For composite packs with the vaccine vial and diluent packaged together, store in the refrigerator at 2°C to 8°C. Do not store the composite pack in the freezer.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

ProQuad is supplied as:
(1) a single-dose vial of lyophilised vaccine and a single-dose vial or needleless syringe of diluent supplied in a separate carton;
(2) a box of ten single-dose vials of lyophilised vaccine and a box of ten single-dose vials or ten needleless syringes of diluent supplied in a separate carton;
(3) a single-dose vial of lyophilised vaccine with a single-dose syringe of diluent in one carton;
(4) ten single-dose vials of lyophilised vaccine and ten single-dose syringes of diluent in one carton.
The frozen formulation of this product is not available.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of by taking to your local pharmacy.

Summary Table of Changes