Consumer medicine information

Roxar

Roxithromycin

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Roxar

Active ingredient

Roxithromycin

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Roxar.

What is in this leaflet

This leaflet answers some common questions about ROXAR.

It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.

All medicines have benefits and risks. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking ROXAR against the benefits they expect it will have for you.

Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you have any concerns about taking this medicine.

Keep this leaflet with your medicine. You may need to read it again.

What ROXAR is used for

ROXAR is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria, such as:

  • acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing)
  • tonsillitis
  • sinusitis
  • acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing)
  • pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache)
  • skin and soft tissue infections
  • non-gonococcal urethritis
  • impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

ROXAR is an antibiotic that belongs to a group of medicines called macrolides. These antibiotics work by killing or stopping the growth of the bacteria that are causing your infection. ROXAR, like other antibiotics, does not work against viral infections such as the flu.

Your doctor may have prescribed ROXAR for another reason. Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why ROXAR has been prescribed for you.

This medicine is available only with a doctor's prescription.

There is no evidence that ROXAR is addictive.

Before you take it

When you must not take it

Do not take this medicine if you are allergic to:

  • roxithromycin
  • any other macrolide antibiotic eg, azithromycin, clarithromycin or erythromycin
  • any of the ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include skin rash, itching, difficulty breathing or swelling.

Do not take ROXAR if you have severe liver problems.

Do not take ROXAR if you are taking certain medicines for migraine headache called ergot alkaloids (eg Cafergot, Ergodryl, Dihydergot). Ask your doctor if you are not sure whether you are taking one of these medicines.

If you are not sure whether you should start taking this medicine, talk to your doctor.

Do not take it if the expiry date (Exp.) printed on the pack has passed.

Do not take it if the packaging is torn or shows signs of tampering.

Before you start to take it

Tell your doctor if you are allergic to any other medicines, foods, dyes or preservatives.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant. Your doctor will discuss the risks and benefits of using ROXAR during pregnancy.

Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. ROXAR passes into the breast milk. Your doctor will discuss the risks and benefits of using this medicine while breast-feeding.

Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had any other medical conditions, including:

  • kidney problems
  • liver problems.

If you have not told your doctor about any of the above, tell him/her before you start taking ROXAR.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, including those you buy without a prescription from a pharmacy, supermarket or health food shop.

Some medicines may be affected by ROXAR or may affect how well it works. These include:

  • theophylline, a medicine used to treat asthma
  • some medicines for migraine headache such as ergotamine or dihydroergotamine
  • disopyramide, a medicine to treat irregular heart rhythms
  • terfenadine and astemizole, over the counter medicines used to treat allergies
  • warfarin, a medicine used to prevent blood clots
  • digoxin, a medicine used to treat heart failure and/or irregular heart rhythms
  • midazolam, used to induce sleep before operations
  • cyclosporin, a medicine used to prevent organ transplant rejection or to treat certain problems with the immune system
  • cisapride, a medicine used to treat gastrointestinal problems
  • pimozide, an antipsychotic medicine.

Your doctor can tell you what to do if you are taking any of these medicines.

If you are not sure whether you are taking any of these medicines, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Your doctor and pharmacist have more information on medicines to be careful with or avoid while taking ROXAR.

How to take it

How much to take

The recommended adult dosage is 300 mg per day which may be taken as one of the following dosage regimens:

  • One 300 mg tablet once a day, or
  • One 150 mg tablet twice a day, or
  • Two 150 mg tablets once a day.

However, depending on your condition and how you react to the medicine, your doctor may ask you to take a different dose.

The recommended dosage for children more than 40 kg, is one 150 mg tablet twice daily.

The dosage of ROXAR given to children is dependant on the child's weight.

Follow all directions given to you by your doctor and pharmacist carefully.

How to take ROXAR

Swallow the tablets with a glass of water.

ROXAR should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal). The medicine works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

If you forget to take it

If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the dose you missed and take your next dose when you are meant to.

Otherwise, take the missed dose as soon as you remember, and then go back to taking your tablets as you would normally.

Do not take a double dose to make up for the dose you missed.

If you are not sure what to do, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

How long to take it

For treating infections, ROXAR is usually taken for 5 to 10 days. However, your doctor may prescribe ROXAR for longer periods. Check with your doctor if you are not sure how long you should be taking it.

Keep taking ROXAR until you finish your pack or until your doctor recommends.

Do not stop taking ROXAR, even if you feel better after a few days, unless advised by your doctor. Your infection may not clear completely if you stop taking your medicine too soon.

If you take too much (overdose)

Immediately telephone your doctor, or the Poisons Information Centre (telephone 13 11 26) or go to Accident and Emergency at the nearest hospital if you think you or anyone else may have taken too much ROXAR. Do this even if there are no signs of discomfort or poisoning. You may need urgent medical attention.

While you are taking it

Things you must do

If your symptoms do not improve within a few days, or if they become worse, tell your doctor.

If you get severe diarrhoea, tell your doctor or pharmacist immediately. Do this even if it occurs several weeks after you have stopped taking ROXAR. Diarrhoea may mean that you have a serious condition affecting your bowel. You may need urgent medical care. Do not take any diarrhoea medicine without checking with your doctor.

If you get a sore, white mouth or tongue while taking or soon after stopping ROXAR, tell your doctor. Also tell your doctor if you get vaginal itching or discharge. This may mean you have a fungal/yeast infection called thrush. Sometimes, the use of this medicine allows fungi/yeast to grow and the above symptoms to occur. ROXAR does not work against fungi/yeast.

Before starting any new medicine, tell your doctor or pharmacist that you are taking ROXAR.

Tell all the doctors, dentists and pharmacists who are treating you that you are taking ROXAR.

If you become pregnant while taking this medicine, tell your doctor.

Things you must not do

Do not stop taking your tablets because you are feeling better, unless advised by your doctor. If you do not complete the full course prescribed by your doctor, all of the bacteria causing your infection may not be killed. These bacteria may continue to grow and multiply so that your infection may not clear completely, or it may return.

Do not use ROXAR to treat any other conditions unless your doctor tells you to.

Do not give your medicine to anyone else, even if they have the same condition as you.

Side effects

Tell your doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible if you do not feel well while you are taking ROXAR.

Like all other medicines, it may have unwanted side effects in some people. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time they are not. You may need medical treatment if you get some of the side effects.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist to answer any questions you may have.

Tell your doctor if you notice any of the following and they worry you:

  • oral thrush - white, furry, sore tongue and mouth
  • vaginal thrush - sore and itchy vagina and/or discharge
  • nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhoea, flatulence
  • loss of appetite
  • red and/or itchy skin
  • headache, dizziness, ringing in the ears
  • tiredness
  • altered taste.

Tell your doctor immediately or go to Accident and Emergency at your nearest hospital if you notice any of the following:

  • swelling of the face, lips, mouth and tongue
  • severe persistent diarrhoea
  • an allergic reaction (for example, itchy skin, rash, swelling, asthma)

These may be signs of a serious allergic reaction.

Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some patients. Tell your doctor if you notice anything that is making you feel unwell.

After finishing ROXAR, tell your doctor immediately if you notice any of the following side effects:

  • severe abdominal cramps or stomach cramps
  • watery and severe diarrhoea, which may also be bloody
  • fever, in combination with one or both of the above.

These are rare but serious side effects. You may have a serious condition affecting your bowel. Therefore, you may need urgent medical attention. However, this side effect is rare. Do not take any diarrhoea medicine without first checking with your doctor.

Some people may get other side effects while taking ROXAR.

Do not be alarmed by this list of possible side effects. You may not experience any of them.

After using it

Storage

Keep your medicine where children cannot reach it. A locked cupboard at least one-and-a-half metres above the ground is a good place to store medicines.

Keep your tablets in a cool place where the temperature stays below 25°C and protect from light and moisture.

Do not store ROXAR or any other medicine in the bathroom or near a sink.

Do not leave it in the car or on windowsills. Heat and dampness can destroy some medicines.

Disposal

If your doctor tells you to stop taking this medicine, or your tablets have passed their expiry date, ask your pharmacist what to do with any that are left over.

Product description

What it looks like

ROXAR comes in 2 strengths of tablets:

  • ROXAR 150- round white tablet. Each pack contains 10 tablets.
  • ROXAR 300- round white tablet. Each pack contains 5 tablets.

Ingredients

The active ingredient in ROXAR is roxithromycin.

  • each ROXAR 150 tablet contains 150 mg of roxithromycin
  • each ROXAR 300 tablet contains 300 mg of roxithromycin

The tablets also contain:

  • hyprolose
  • colloidal anhydrous silica
  • purified talc
  • povidone
  • maize starch
  • magnesium stearate
  • hypromellose
  • anhydrous glucose
  • titanium dioxide
  • propylene glycol.

The tablets do not contain gluten, lactose, sucrose, tartrazine or any other azo dyes.

Sponsor

Arrow Pharma Pty Ltd
15-17 Chapel Street
Cremorne VIC 3121

Australian registration numbers:
ROXAR 150 - AUST R 114040
ROXAR 300 - AUST R 114041

This leaflet was revised in June 2020.

Published by MIMS August 2020

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Roxar

Active ingredient

Roxithromycin

Schedule

S4

 

1 Name of Medicine

Roxithromycin.

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Roxar 150 tablets contain 150 mg of roxithromycin.
Roxar 300 tablets contain 300 mg of roxithromycin.

Physical and chemical characteristics.

Roxithromycin is a white, crystalline powder. It is very slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in acetone, alcohol and methylene chloride.

Excipients.

For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

Roxar 150 tablets are white to off white round biconvex film-coated tablet plain on both sides.
Roxar 300 tablets are white to off white round biconvex film-coated tablet plain on both sides.

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Adults.

Roxithromycin is indicated for the treatment of the following types of mild to moderately severe infections caused by or likely to be caused by susceptible microorganisms.
Upper respiratory tract infection: acute pharyngitis, tonsillitis and sinusitis.
Lower respiratory tract infection: acute bronchitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis; community acquired pneumonia.
Skin and skin structure infections.
Nongonococcal urethritis.

Children.

Roxithromycin 150 mg tablets are indicated for the treatment of the following mild to moderately severe infections in children caused by or likely to be caused by susceptible microorganisms: acute pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, impetigo.
Appropriate culture and sensitivity tests should be performed when necessary to determine organism susceptibility and thus treatment suitability. Therapy with roxithromycin may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be continued.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

Roxithromycin should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than three hours after a meal).
The recommended dosage is 300 mg per day, which may be taken according to one of the following dosage regimens.

Usual dosage.

Roxar 300 mg tablets: one tablet daily; Roxar 150 mg tablets: one tablet twice daily or two tablets once daily.

Elderly.

Roxar 300 mg tablets: one tablet daily; Roxar 150 mg tablets: one tablet twice daily or two tablets once daily.

Impaired renal function.

Roxar 300 mg tablets: one tablet daily; Roxar 150 mg tablets: one tablet twice daily or two tablets once daily.
For atypical pneumonia, the recommended dosage is 150 mg twice daily.
Roxar 150 and 300 mg film coated tablets must be swallowed whole with a drink.
The usual duration of treatment is five to ten days depending on the indication and clinical response. Streptococcal throat infections require at least ten days of therapy. A small proportion of patients with nongonococcal genital infections may require 20 days for complete cure.

Children.

The recommended dose and duration of treatment should not be exceeded in children (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
Roxithromycin should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than three hours after a meal).
Roxithromycin is administered twice daily at a dose of 5 to 8 mg/kg/day.
The usual duration of treatment is five to ten days depending on the indication and clinical response. Streptococcal throat infections require ten days of therapy. The duration of treatment should not exceed ten days.

4.3 Contraindications

Known hypersensitivity to macrolides, including erythromycin.
Severely impaired hepatic function (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
Concomitant therapy with vasoconstrictive ergot alkaloids (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions).

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

Prolonged or repeated use of antibiotics including roxithromycin may result in superinfection by resistant organisms. In the event of superinfection, roxithromycin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
When indicated, incision, drainage or other appropriate surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
Antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with many antibiotics. A toxin produced by Clostridium difficile appears to be the primary cause. The severity of the colitis may range from mild to life threatening. It is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who develop diarrhoea or colitis in association with antibiotic use (this may occur up to several weeks after cessation of antibiotic therapy). Mild cases usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. However, in moderate to severe cases, appropriate therapy with a suitable oral antibacterial agent effective against Cl. difficile should be considered. Fluids, electrolytes and protein replacement therapy should be provided when indicated.
Drugs that delay peristalsis, e.g. opiates and diphenoxylate with atropine (e.g. Lomotil), may prolong and/or worsen the condition and should not be used.
Roxithromycin, like erythromycin, has been shown in vitro to elicit a concentration dependent lengthening in cardiac action potential duration. Such an effect is manifested only at supratherapeutic concentrations. Accordingly, the recommended doses should not be exceeded.
In certain conditions macrolides, including roxithromycin, have the potential to prolong the QT interval. Therefore roxithromycin should be used with caution in patients with congenital prolongation of the QT interval, with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions (i.e. uncorrected hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia, clinically significant bradycardia), and in patients receiving Class IA and III antiarrhythmic agents and drugs such as astemizole, cisapride or pimozide (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions).
As with other macrolides, roxithromycin may have the potential to aggravate myasthenia gravis.

Clostridium difficile-associated disease.

Diarrhoea, particularly if severe, persistent and/or bloody, during or after treatment with roxithromycin, may be symptomatic of pseudomembranous colitis (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)). If pseudomembranous colitis is suspected, roxithromycin must be stopped immediately.
Cases of severe bullous skin reactions such as Stevens Johnson Syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrosis have been reported with roxithromycin (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)). If symptoms or signs of SJS or TEN (e.g. progressive skin rash often with blisters or mucosal lesions) are present, roxithromycin treatment should be discontinued.
Severe vasoconstriction ("ergotism") with possibly necrosis of the extremities has been reported when macrolides antibiotics have been associated with vasoconstrictive ergot alkaloids. Absence of treatment by these alkaloids must always be checked before prescribing roxithromycin.

Use in hepatic impairment.

The safety of roxithromycin has not been demonstrated in patients with impaired hepatic function. Caution should be exercised if roxithromycin is administered to patients with impaired hepatic function. If administered to patients with severely impaired hepatic function (e.g. hepatic cirrhosis with jaundice and/or ascites), consideration should be given to reducing the daily dosage to half the usual dosage.

Use in renal impairment.

The safety of roxithromycin has not been demonstrated in patients with impaired renal function. Caution should be exercised if roxithromycin is administered to patients with impaired renal function.

Use in the elderly.

No dosage adjustment is required in elderly patients.

Paediatric use.

In young animal studies, high oral doses of roxithromycin were associated with bone growth plate abnormalities. However no abnormalities were observed in the animals at doses resulting in unbound plasma roxithromycin concentrations that were 10 to 15 times higher than the unbound concentration measured in children receiving the therapeutic dose. The maintenance of such safety margins is primarily dependent on high affinity binding of roxithromycin to plasma alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and will be compromised by any circumstances attenuating the extent of this binding. It is recommended that the approved paediatric dosage regimen (i.e. 5 to 8 mg/kg/day for a maximum of ten days) be adhered to strictly.
Neutropenia was observed in children treated with roxithromycin. 31.6% of 402 children in clinical trials had a neutrophil count below the lower limit of the normal range (3,500/mm3) at the conclusion of therapy with roxithromycin. Of these, 4% had a neutrophil count of less than 1,500/mm3 and 1.2% had a count of less than 1,000/mm3. It is not known whether this is an effect of the drug, or whether it reflects a normal fluctuation of the neutrophil count or a response to infection in children.

Effects on laboratory tests.

No data available.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

Roxithromycin has a much lower affinity for cytochrome P450 than erythromycin, and consequently has fewer interactions. Interactions may be observed, however, with drugs that bind to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, e.g. disopyramide.
Roxithromycin does not appear to interact with oral contraceptives containing oestrogens and progestogens, prednisolone, carbamazepine, ranitidine or antacids.

Theophylline.

A study in normal subjects concurrently administered roxithromycin and theophylline has shown some increase in the plasma concentration of the latter. While a change in dosage is usually not required, patients with high levels of theophylline at commencement of treatment should have levels monitored.

Ergot alkaloids.

Reactions of ergotism with possible peripheral necrosis have been reported after concomitant therapy of macrolides with vasoconstrictive ergot alkaloids, particularly ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. Because a clinical interaction with roxithromycin cannot be excluded, administration of roxithromycin to patients taking ergot alkaloids is contraindicated. Absence of treatment with these alkaloids must always be checked before prescribing roxithromycin.

Disopyramide.

An in vitro study has shown that roxithromycin can displace protein bound disopyramide; such an effect in vivo could result in increased serum levels of disopyramide. Consequently ECG and, if possible, disopyramide serum levels should be monitored.

Terfenadine.

Some macrolide antibiotics (e.g. erythromycin) may increase serum levels of terfenadine. This can result in severe cardiovascular adverse events, including QT prolongation, torsades de pointes and other ventricular arrhythmias. Such a reaction has not been documented with roxithromycin, which has a much lower affinity for cytochrome P450 than erythromycin. However, in the absence of a systematic interaction study, concomitant administration of roxithromycin and terfenadine is not recommended.

Astemizole, cisapride, pimozide.

Other drugs, such as astemizole, cisapride or pimozide, which are metabolised by the hepatic isozyme CYP3A4, have been associated with QT interval prolongation and/or cardiac arrhythmias (typically torsades de pointes) as a result of an increase in their serum level subsequent to interaction with significant inhibitors of this isozyme, including some macrolide antibacterials. Although roxithromycin has no or limited ability to complex CYP3A4 and therefore to inhibit the metabolism of other drugs processed by this isozyme, a potential for clinical interaction of roxithromycin with the above mentioned drugs cannot be either ascertained or ruled out in confidence; therefore, concomitant administration of roxithromycin and such drugs is not recommended.

Vitamin K antagonists.

While no interaction was observed in volunteer studies, roxithromycin appears to interact with warfarin. Increases in prothrombin time (international normalised ratio (INR)) have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with roxithromycin and warfarin or the related vitamin K antagonist phenprocoumon, and severe bleeding episodes have occurred as a consequence. INR should be monitored during combined treatment with roxithromycin and vitamin K antagonists.

Digoxin and other cardiac glycosides.

A study in healthy volunteers has shown that roxithromycin may increase the absorption of digoxin. This effect, common to other macrolides, may very rarely result in cardiac glycoside toxicity. This may be manifested by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache or dizziness; cardiac glycoside toxicity may also elicit heart conduction and/or rhythm disorders. Consequently, in patients treated with roxithromycin and digoxin or another cardiac glycoside, ECG and, if possible, the serum level of the cardiac glycoside should be monitored; this is mandatory if symptoms which may suggest cardiac glycoside overdosage occur.

Midazolam.

Roxithromycin, like other macrolides, may increase the area under the midazolam concentration time curve and the midazolam half-life, therefore the effects of midazolam may be enhanced and prolonged in patients treated with roxithromycin. There is no conclusive evidence for an interaction between roxithromycin and triazolam.

Theophylline and cyclosporin.

A slight increase in plasma concentrations of cyclosporin A has been observed. This does not generally necessitate altering the usual dosage.

CYP3A.

Roxithromycin is a weak CYP3A inhibitor. The effect of roxithromycin on exposure to drugs predominantly cleared by CYP3A metabolism would be expected to be 2-fold or less. Caution should be exercised when roxithromycin is concomitantly prescribed with drugs metabolised by CYP3A (such as rifabutin and bromocriptine).

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

There was no effect on the fertility of rats treated with roxithromycin at oral doses up to 180 mg/kg/day.
(Category B1)
Reproductive studies in rats, mice and rabbits at doses of 100, 400 and 135 mg/kg/day, respectively, did not demonstrate evidence of developmental abnormalities. In rats, at doses above 180 mg/kg/day, there was evidence of embryotoxicity and maternotoxicity. The safety of roxithromycin for the human foetus has not been established.
Small amounts of roxithromycin are excreted in the breast milk. Breastfeeding or treatment of the mother should be discontinued as necessary.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

Attention should be drawn to the possibility of dizziness, visual impairment and blurred vision.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Roxithromycin is generally well tolerated. In clinical trials, treatment discontinuation due to adverse reactions occurred in only 1.2% of adult patients and 1.0% of children. The following side effects or serious adverse events possibly associated with roxithromycin have been reported.

Gastrointestinal.

Nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain (dyspepsia), diarrhoea (sometimes containing blood), anorexia, flatulence, pseudomembranous colitis. In clinical studies, the incidence of gastrointestinal events was higher with the 300 mg once daily dosage regimen than with 150 mg twice daily. Symptoms of pancreatitis have been observed; most patients had received other drugs for which pancreatitis is a known adverse effect.

Hypersensitivity.

Urticaria, rash, pruritus, angioedema. Rarely, serious allergic reactions may occur, e.g. asthma, bronchospasm, anaphylactic-like reactions, anaphylactic shock, purpura, glottic oedema, generalised oedema, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (TEN) (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).

Hepatic.

Moderate increases in serum transaminases (AST and ALT) and/or alkaline phosphatase levels have been observed and are somewhat more likely to occur in the elderly (> 65 years). Acute cholestatic hepatitis and acute hepatocellular injury are rarely reported.

Other.

Eosinophilia, agranulocytosis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, bronchospasm, hallucination, confusion, headache, dizziness, paraesthesia, tinnitus, malaise, moniliasis, pancreatitis, QT prolongation, disorders of taste and/or smell, visual impairment, blurred vision, temporary deafness, hypoacusis and vertigo.
Prolonged use of antibiotics including roxithromycin may result in superinfection; overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. Repeated evaluation of the patient's condition is essential. In the event of superinfection, appropriate measures should be taken.

Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.

4.9 Overdose

In case of overdosage, symptomatic treatment should be provided as required. There is no specific antidote. For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poison Information Centre on 13 11 26 (Australia).

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Mechanism of action.

Roxithromycin is a semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic.
Roxithromycin is bacteriostatic at low concentrations and bactericidal at high concentrations. It binds to the 50S subunit of the 70S ribosome, thereby disrupting bacterial protein synthesis.
A prolonged postantibiotic effect has been observed with roxithromycin. Whilst the clinical significance of this remains uncertain, it supports the rationale for once daily dosing. Although clinical data have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of once daily dosing in adults, these have not been demonstrated in children.
At plasma concentrations achieved with the recommended therapeutic doses, roxithromycin has been demonstrated to have in vitro and clinical activity against the following microorganisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Strep. pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia sp.
Roxithromycin has been demonstrated to have clinical activity against the following microorganisms which are partially sensitive in vitro to roxithromycin: Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus, except methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA).
The following strains of microorganisms are resistant: multiresistant Staph. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp.

Susceptibility tests.

Dilution or diffusion techniques, either quantitative (MIC) or breakpoint, should be used following a regularly updated, recognised and standardised method (e.g. NCCLS).
Standardised susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures.
A report of 'susceptible' indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of 'intermediate' indicates that the result should be considered equivocal and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone, which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of 'resistant' indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

Note.

The prevalence of resistance may vary geographically for selected species and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections.

Clinical trials.

No data available.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

Absorption.

Roxithromycin is absorbed after oral administration with an absolute bioavailability of approximately 50%. Peak plasma concentrations following administration of 150 and 300 mg film coated tablets are achieved in young and elderly adult patients approximately one to two hours postdose.
As food intake delays absorption, roxithromycin should be administered at least 15 minutes before food or, alternatively, on an empty stomach (i.e. more than three hours after a meal).
Absorption is not linear; with increasing doses in the range 150 to 300 mg, peak plasma levels and area under the curve (AUC) do not increase in proportion to the dose.
After repeated administration of 2.5 mg/kg every twelve hours to children, the average peak plasma concentration at steady state was 9 mg/L and the AUC was 61 mg.hour/L.
Following administration of a single oral dose of roxithromycin 150 mg to healthy young adults, the mean peak plasma concentration was 6.6 mg/L and the AUC was 69 mg.hour/L. At steady state following doses of 150 mg twice daily, the mean peak plasma concentration was 9.3 mg/L and the AUC was 71 mg.hour/L.
In elderly patients the mean peak plasma concentration following a single 150 mg dose was 9.1 mg/L and the AUC was 148 mg.hour/L. At steady state, a dosage regimen of 150 mg twice daily produced a mean peak plasma concentration of 11.3 mg/L and an AUC of 83 mg.hour/L.
Following administration of a single oral dose of roxithromycin 300 mg to healthy young adults, the mean peak plasma concentration was 10.7 mg/L and the AUC was 146.0 mg.hour/L. At steady state following doses of 300 mg once daily, the mean peak plasma concentration was 10.9 mg/L and the AUC was 77 mg.hour/L.
In elderly patients, the mean peak plasma concentration following a single 300 mg dose was 10.8 mg/L and the AUC was 197 mg.hour/L.

Distribution.

Roxithromycin is 92 to 96% bound to plasma proteins (principally alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, but also albumin) at concentrations less than 4.2 mg/L. The binding is saturable; in subjects with normal plasma levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, the extent of binding decreases when plasma concentrations of roxithromycin exceed 4.2 mg/L. At plasma concentration of 8.4 mg/L approximately 87% of the drug is protein bound.
Roxithromycin is highly concentrated in polymorphonuclear leucocytes and macrophages, where levels 30 times those in serum have been reported.

Metabolism.

The mean half-life of roxithromycin is approximately 13 hours in young adults and 20 hours in children. The apparently longer half-life in children does not cause excessive accumulation; minimum concentration (Cmin) and AUC values are comparable for adults and children.
The half-life is prolonged to 25 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function and 18 hours in patients with renal insufficiency.
The mean half-life in elderly patients is approximately 27 hours.
Roxithromycin undergoes limited metabolism in the body, presumably in the liver. The major metabolite is descladinose roxithromycin. Two minor metabolites have also been identified. Plasma levels of roxithromycin are approximately twice those of all metabolites; a similar ratio is seen in the urine and faeces.

Excretion.

Approximately 7% of a dose is excreted in the urine and 13% is eliminated via the lungs. Faecal excretion, which represents the unabsorbed fraction and the small proportion excreted by the liver, accounts for approximately 53% of the dose. The fate of the remainder is unknown.
When roxithromycin plasma levels are above 4.2 mg/L, renal clearance increases because reduced plasma protein binding (see Distribution) causes increased levels of unbound roxithromycin which may be excreted by the kidneys.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Genotoxicity.

Roxithromycin has shown no mutagenic potential in standard laboratory tests for gene mutation and chromosomal damage.

Carcinogenicity.

Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of roxithromycin.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

Roxar tablets contain the following excipients: low substituted hyprolose, colloidal anhydrous silica, povidone, purified talc, maize starch, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, anhydrous glucose, titanium dioxide and propylene glycol.
The tablets are gluten free.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Incompatibilities were either not assessed or not identified as part of the registration of this medicine.

6.3 Shelf Life

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the packaging.

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

Store below 25 deg. C. Protect from heat and moisture.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

Roxar 150 tablets is available in blister pack (PVC/PVDC/Al) of 10 tablets.
Roxar 300 tablets is available in blister pack (PVC/PVDC/Al) of 5 tablets.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of by taking to your local pharmacy.

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

Chemical structure.

The chemical name for roxithromycin is (3R,4S,5S,6R, 7R,9R,11S,12R,13S,14R)- 4-[(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl- 3-O- methyl-α-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]- 14-ethyl-7,12, 13-trihydroxy-10-[(E)-[(2-methoxyethoxy) methoxy]imino]-3,5,7,9,11,13-hexamethyl -6- [[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethyl amino)-β-d-xylo- hexopyranosyl] oxy]oxacyclotetradecan-2-one. The structural formula of roxithromycin is:
C41H76N2O15. Molecular weight: 837.

CAS number.

CAS No.: 80214-83-1.

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

Schedule 4 - Prescription only Medicine.

Summary Table of Changes