Consumer medicine information

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use)

Immunoglobulin, tetanus

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use)

Active ingredient

Immunoglobulin, tetanus

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use).

What is in this leaflet

This leaflet answers some common questions about Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). It does not contain complete information about Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). It does not take the place of talking to your doctor.

If you have any concerns about using this medicine, ask your doctor. Follow your doctor’s advice even if it is different from what this leaflet says.

Please read this leaflet carefully and keep it for future reference.

The information in this leaflet is subject to change. Please check with your doctor whether there is any new information about this medicine that you should know since you were last treated.

What Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is used for

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is manufactured from human plasma (the liquid component of blood) collected by Australian Red Cross Lifeblood. Donations are selected on the basis that they contain high levels of antibodies against the poison produced by bacteria which cause tetanus. This medicine is used for the treatment of tetanus infection.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) has been prescribed for you. Your doctor will have assessed the risks and benefits for you associated with the use of this product.

Before you are given Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use)

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) must not be used if you have a history of allergy to human immunoglobulin products.

Tell your doctor if you have allergies to any other medicines or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an injection.

Tell your doctor also if you:

  • have previously been advised that you have Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency
  • have previously been advised that you have kidney disease
  • have previously been advised that you have diabetes
  • are taking or using any other medicines. These include medicines bought from pharmacies, supermarkets and health food stores.
  • have any other medical conditions
  • are pregnant or breast-feeding
  • intend to receive any vaccinations in the next three months.

If you want any further information, consult your doctor.

About blood products

When products are made from human blood and injected into you, it is possible that viruses or other substances could be present in the product and cause an illness. These could be viruses such as hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or human parvovirus B19 and theoretically the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) agent. There could also be other infectious agents some of which may not yet have been discovered.

To reduce the risk of this happening, extra steps are taken when manufacturing this product. Strict controls are applied when selecting blood donors and donations. The product is specially treated to remove and kill certain viruses. These special treatments are considered effective against viruses known as enveloped viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus and non-enveloped viruses, such as hepatitis A virus and human parvovirus B19. Despite these measures, the risk of viral and other agent’s infectivity cannot be totally eliminated.

Vaccines are available against some of these viruses and your doctor will be able to help you decide whether it is worthwhile having any of those vaccines.

Please discuss the risks and benefits of this product with your doctor.

How to use Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use)

Your doctor will determine the dose(s) of Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) that you are to receive. Your doctor will give you Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) as an infusion, that is, an injection given slowly into the vein.

Side effects

Along with their intended effects, medicines occasionally cause some unwanted effects, some of which are serious. Individuals may react differently to similar doses of the same product. This applies to Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use).

Severe allergic reactions to immunoglobulins are rare. Should a hypersensitivity reaction occur, the doctor will stop the infusion.

Unwanted effects which may occur include: stomach pain, headache, chest-tightness, flushed or pale face, feeling hot, shortness of breath, non-itchy skin rash, itching, faintness, nausea or vomiting, or a hot feeling or redness at the site of the injection. Should any of these effects develop during infusion, the doctor will take appropriate action.

Some patients may develop delayed unwanted effects such as nausea, vomiting, chest pain, chills or shivering, dizziness or aching legs. These effects may occur after the infusion has stopped but usually within 24 hours.

A condition called Aseptic Meningitis Syndrome (AMS) has been reported to occur infrequently in association with infusions similar to Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). It usually begins within several hours to two days following treatment. The signs include severe headache, neck stiffness, drowsiness, fever, inability to stand bright light, painful eye movements, and nausea and vomiting. The condition reverses without ill effects when treatment is stopped.

There have been reports that the kidneys may be affected with infusions similar to Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). These occurrences are extremely rare.

If you experience any of the mentioned effects or any other abnormal signs after treatment, contact your doctor immediately.

Contact your doctor immediately if you experience any of these symptoms at any time: fever, loss of appetite, extreme tiredness, stomach pain, jaundice (yellow skin and eyes), dark urine, joint pains and skin rashes.

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) can interfere with some live vaccines (e.g. measles and polio), even up to three months later. Advise your doctor if you are to receive other vaccines within three months of receiving Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use).

Interference with glucose estimations

The maltose present in Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) may interfere with some blood glucose measurements, resulting in the overestimation of blood glucose results. If this glucose measurement is used to guide treatment, hypoglycaemia may occur. Only certain glucose tests have been implicated, so when monitoring glucose levels consult your doctor to ensure that maltose does not interfere with the blood glucose reading of the test you are using.

If you want further information, or if you are worried about any other symptoms after the infusion, consult your doctor.

Overdose

No cases of overdose have ever been reported.

Storing Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use)

Store at 2°C to 8°C (Refrigerate. Do not freeze). Protect from light.

Do not use after the expiry date shown on the label.

Further information

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) can only be obtained on a doctor’s prescription. This leaflet does not contain the complete information about Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). If you require further information about Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) and your treatment generally, or if you have any questions or are not sure about something in this leaflet, consult your doctor.

Product description

What it looks like

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is a clear, colourless, non-viscous (not thick) solution. It is available in glass bottles.

Ingredients

In each vial of Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is a sterile solution containing 6% blood proteins of which at least 98% is immunoglobulins with a tetanus antitoxin activity of 4000 IU per vial. It also contains 10% maltose (a sugar).

Manufacturer

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is manufactured in Australia by:

CSL Behring (Australia) Pty Ltd
ABN 48 160 734 761
189-209 Camp Road
Broadmeadows VIC 3047
Australia

Distributor

Australian Red Cross Lifeblood

Date of revision

May 2020

Australian Register Number

AUST R 31829

Published by MIMS June 2020

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use)

Active ingredient

Immunoglobulin, tetanus

Schedule

S4

 

Notes

Distributed by Australian Red Cross Lifeblood

1 Name of Medicine

Human tetanus immunoglobulin.

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

CAS number.

None assigned.

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is a sterile, preservative free solution containing 55-65 mg/mL plasma proteins of which at least 98% is immunoglobulins (mainly IgG), with a tetanus antitoxin activity of 4,000 IU per vial. Isotonicity is achieved by the addition of 292 mmol/L maltose. The distribution of the IgG subclasses closely resembles that found in normal human plasma (approximate mean ranges: 52.5-64.9% IgG1, 29.0-42.2% IgG2, 3.1-6.8% IgG3, 0.4-1.2% IgG4). Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF contains only trace amounts of IgA (nominally < 0.5 mg/mL).
Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is manufactured from human plasma collected by Australian Red Cross Lifeblood.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

Solution for intravenous injection.
The pH of the solution is 4.25.

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Mechanism of action.

Donations are selected on the basis that they contain high levels of specific antibodies against the toxin of Clostridium tetani. The protein has not been chemically or enzymatically modified.

Clinical trials.

No data available.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

The antibody has a serum half-life of approximately three weeks.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Genotoxicity.

No genotoxicity studies have been conducted with Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). There have been no reports of such effects associated with the use of CSL's plasma-derived therapeutic medicines.

Carcinogenicity.

No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). There have been no reports of such effects associated with the use of CSL's plasma-derived therapeutic medicines.

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is used in the management of clinical tetanus.

4.3 Contraindications

None known (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

The product should be given to the following patients only if the benefits outweigh the possible risks:
patients who have had a true anaphylactic reaction to human immunoglobulin;
individuals with isolated IgA deficiency who have antibody against IgA.
Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) must not be administered intramuscularly. Other routes of administration have not been evaluated.
It is possible that Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) may, on rare occasions, cause a precipitous fall in blood pressure and a clinical picture of anaphylaxis. These reactions may be related to the rate of infusion. Accordingly, the infusion rate given (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration) should be closely followed at least until the physician has had sufficient experience with a given patient. The patient's vital signs should be monitored regularly and careful observation made for any symptoms throughout the entire infusion. Adrenaline (epinephrine), oxygen, antihistamine and steroids should be available for the treatment of acute anaphylactic reactions.
An aseptic meningitis syndrome (AMS) has been reported to occur infrequently in association with human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. The syndrome usually begins within several hours to two days following IVIG treatment. It is characterised by symptoms and signs including severe headache, nuchal rigidity, drowsiness, fever, photophobia, painful eye movements, and nausea and vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies are frequently positive with pleocytosis, predominantly from the granulocytic series, and elevated protein levels. Patients exhibiting such symptoms and signs should receive a thorough neurological examination, including CSF studies, to rule out other causes of meningitis. AMS may occur more frequently in association with high dose (2 g/kg) IVIG treatment. Discontinuation of IVIG treatment has resulted in remission of AMS within several days without sequelae.
There have been occasional reports of renal dysfunction and acute renal failure in patients receiving IVIG products. Patients at increased risk are those with pre-existing renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, age greater than 65 years, volume depletion, sepsis and paraproteinaemia, and those taking concomitant nephrotoxic medicines. The majority of such incidents have been associated with sucrose-containing products. While there is no sucrose in Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) the following precautions should be followed. Patients should be adequately hydrated prior to the initiation of the IVIG infusion and the recommended dose should not be exceeded. Renal function should be monitored in patients at increased risk of developing acute renal failure. If renal function deteriorates, discontinuation of IVIG should be considered.

Pathogen safety.

This product is made from human plasma. Products made from human plasma may contain infectious agents, such as viruses and, theoretically, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) agents, that can cause disease. The risk that such products will transmit an infectious agent has been reduced by screening plasma donors for prior exposure to certain infectious agents and by testing for the presence of certain viral markers.
In addition, the manufacturing process for Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) contains specific steps to reduce the possibility of viral transmission including low pH incubation for viral inactivation and nanofiltration for virus removal. The current procedures applied in the manufacture of this product are effective against enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the non-enveloped viruses, such as hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human parvovirus B19.
Immunoglobulins for intravenous injection, prepared by this process have not been implicated in the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Studies using plasma spiked with HIV have shown that the Cohn cold-ethanol fractionation process produces a very large reduction in virus titre with undetectable levels in the immunoglobulin fraction. Studies have shown that incubation at 27°C and pH 4.25, as performed in the manufacture of this product, also produces a very large reduction in HIV titre. Epidemiological studies have not recognised any cluster of AIDS patients or HIV seroconversion in immunoglobulin recipients.
Despite these measures, such products may still potentially transmit disease. There is also the possibility that other known or unknown infectious agents may be present in such products. Vaccination should be considered where appropriate for patients in receipt of medicinal products manufactured from human plasma.

Use in the elderly.

The use of this product in the elderly population has not been established in appropriate studies. To date, this population is not over-represented in spontaneous reports of adverse events associated with the use of CSL's IVIG therapeutic medicines.

Paediatric use.

The use of this product in the paediatric population has not been established in appropriate studies. To date, this population is not over-represented in spontaneous reports of adverse events associated with the use of CSL's IVIG therapeutic medicines.

Effects on laboratory tests.

After injection of immunoglobulin the transitory rise of the various passively transferred antibodies in the patient's blood may result in misleading positive results in serological testing.

Interference with glucose estimations.

The maltose present in Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) may interfere with some blood glucose measurements, resulting in the overestimation of blood glucose results. If this glucose measurement is used to guide treatment, hypoglycaemia may occur. Only certain glucose tests using glucose dehydrogenase have been implicated, so when monitoring glucose levels in patients receiving Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use), information from the manufacturer of the glucose meter and/or test strips should be reviewed to ensure that maltose does not interfere with the blood glucose reading.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

Live attenuated virus vaccines.

Passively acquired antibody can interfere with the response to live attenuated virus vaccines. Therefore, administration of such vaccines, e.g. poliomyelitis or measles, should be deferred until approximately three months after passive immunisation.

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

No reproductive toxicity studies have been conducted with Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). There have been no reports of such effects associated with the use of CSL's plasma-derived therapeutic medicines.
The safety of Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) for use in human pregnancy has not been established in controlled clinical trials and therefore it should be given to pregnant women only if clearly needed. However, clinical experience with other immunoglobulin preparations given during pregnancy suggests that there are no adverse effects on the fetus.
Immunoglobulins are excreted in breast milk and may contribute to the transfer of protective antibodies to the neonate. It is not known, however, whether this applies to passively administered Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use). Clinical experience with immunoglobulins suggests that no harmful effects on the neonate are to be expected.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Reactions to IVIG tend to be related to the infusion rate and are most likely to occur during the first hour of the infusion. It is recommended that the patient's vital signs and general status be monitored regularly throughout the infusion.
The types of reactions that may occur include: abdominal pain, headache, chest-tightness, facial flushing or pallor, feeling hot, dyspnoea, non-urticarial skin rash, itching, hypotension, nausea or vomiting. Should any of these reactions develop during infusion of Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use), the infusion should be temporarily stopped until the patient improves clinically (5 to 10 minutes) and then cautiously recommenced at a slower rate.
Some patients may develop delayed adverse reactions to Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) such as nausea, vomiting, chest pain, rigors or aching legs. These adverse reactions occur after the infusion has stopped but usually within 24 hours.
True anaphylactic reactions to IVIG such as urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm or hypotension occur very rarely. Should an anaphylactic reaction to Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) develop, the infusion should be stopped and treatment instituted with adrenaline (epinephrine), oxygen, antihistamine and steroids.
There have been reports that IVIG can affect renal function. This should be monitored in patients with pre-existing renal failure who are given Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use).
Rarely, renal dysfunction and acute renal failure have been reported.

Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

Dosage.

The recommended dose of Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) for the treatment of tetanus is 4,000 IU. It should be administered by slow intravenous infusion as described below. After administration of this dose (4,000 IU), it has been shown that circulating antibody levels are maintained above the minimum protective titre for at least 6 weeks. The dose, therefore, need not be repeated.

Administration.

If the product appears to be turbid by transmitted light or contains any sediment it must not be used, and the vial should be returned to Australian Red Cross Lifeblood. The product does not contain an antimicrobial preservative. It must, therefore, be used immediately after opening the vial. Any unused portion must be discarded appropriately. Use in one patient on one occasion only. Do not use if the solution has been frozen.
Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) may be infused undiluted. Allow the preparation to reach room temperature before infusing into the patient. Remove the dust cover from the top of the vial. Apply a suitable antiseptic such as povidone-iodine or 70% ethanol to the exposed part of the rubber stopper and allow to dry.
It is usual to gradually increase the infusion rate (provided the patient's vital signs are satisfactory at the lower rate) to the desired rate over the first 30 minutes. The infusion may be commenced at the rate of 1 mL per minute. After 15 minutes the rate may be gradually increased to a maximum of 3 to 4 mL per minute over a further 15 minutes.

Compatibility with other medicines.

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) may be diluted with up to four times its volume of 0.9% saline or 5% glucose. No other medicine compatibilities have been evaluated. Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) should be administered separately from other intravenous fluids or medications the patient is receiving.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

The effects of this medicine on a person's ability to drive and use machines were not assessed as part of its registration.

4.9 Overdose

Overdosage may lead to fluid overload and hyperviscosity, particularly in the elderly and in patients with renal impairment.
For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 (Australia).

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

S4.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

See Section 2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition.

6.2 Incompatibilities

See Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration.

6.3 Shelf Life

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the packaging.

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

Store at 2°C to 8°C. (Refrigerate. Do not freeze.) Protect from light.
Do not use after the expiry date.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

Tetanus Immunoglobulin-VF (For Intravenous Use) is available in single vials containing 4000 IU Human Tetanus Antitoxin.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Summary Table of Changes