Consumer medicine information

Trelegy Ellipta 100/62.5/25

Fluticasone furoate; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Trelegy Ellipta

Active ingredient

Fluticasone furoate; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Trelegy Ellipta 100/62.5/25.

What is in this leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using TRELEGY ELLIPTA.

This leaflet answers some common questions about TRELEGY ELLIPTA.

It does not contain all the available information.

It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.

All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking TRELEGY ELLIPTA against the benefits they expect it will have for you.

If you have any concerns about taking this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Keep this leaflet with the medicine. You may need to read it again.

What TRELEGY ELLIPTA is used for

TRELEGY ELLIPTA is used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). TRELEGY ELLIPTA is a dry powder inhaler. When you breathe in using the inhaler, the medicine is deposited into the lungs.

COPD is a long-term condition that slowly gets worse. Symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, chest discomfort and coughing up mucus.

TRELEGY ELLIPTA contains three active ingredients: fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide) and vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Fluticasone furoate belongs to a group of medicines called corticosteroids, often simply called steroids. They are not 'anabolic steroids' which are the steroids sometimes misused by athletes.

Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation. They reduce the swelling and irritation in the small air passages in the lungs and so ease breathing problems.

Umeclidinium and vilanterol belong to a group of medicines called bronchodilators. They work together to help open the airways and make it easier for air to get in and out of the lungs.

When TRELEGY ELLIPTA is used regularly, it can help to control the breathing difficulties related to your disease and help with the effects of the disease on your everyday life.

TRELEGY ELLIPTA should not be used to relieve a sudden attack of breathlessness or wheezing. If you get this sort of attack you must use a quick-acting inhaler (such as VENTOLIN).

Your doctor may have prescribed TRELEGY ELLIPTA for another reason.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you.

This medicine is not addictive.

This medicine is available only with a doctor's prescription.

TRELEGY ELLIPTA should not be used in children or adolescents under the age of 18 years.

Before you use TRELEGY ELLIPTA

When you must not use it

Don't use TRELEGY ELLIPTA:

  • if you are allergic (hypersensitive) to lactose or milk protein
  • if you are allergic (hypersensitive) to fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, vilanterol or any other ingredients of TRELEGY ELLIPTA (listed at the end of this leaflet).

If you think either of these applies to you, don't use TRELEGY ELLIPTA until you have checked with your doctor.

Some of the symptoms of an allergic reaction may include:

  • shortness of breath
  • wheezing, coughing or difficulty breathing
  • swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body
  • rash, itching, redness or hives on the skin
  • suddenly feeling weak or light headed (may lead to collapse or loss of consciousness).

TRELEGY ELLIPTA contains lactose monohydrate.

If you have been diagnosed with an intolerance to some sugars, or to milk protein, talk to your doctor before you use TRELEGY ELLIPTA.

TRELEGY ELLIPTA is not usually recommended for use during pregnancy.

If you are pregnant, if you think you may be pregnant or if you are planning to have a baby, don't use TRELEGY ELLIPTA without asking your doctor. Your doctor will consider the benefit to you and the risk to your baby of taking TRELEGY ELLIPTA while you are pregnant.

If you are breast-feeding, check with your doctor before you take TRELEGY ELLIPTA. It is not known whether the ingredients of TRELEGY ELLIPTA can pass into breast milk.

Do not take this medicine after the expiry date printed on the pack or if the packaging is torn or shows signs of tampering. If it has expired or is damaged, return it to your pharmacist for disposal.

If you are not sure whether you should start taking this medicine, talk to your doctor.

Before you start to use it

Tell your doctor if you have or have had any of the following medical conditions:

  • asthma
  • heart problems or high blood pressure
  • liver disease, as you may be more likely to have side effects
  • being or have been treated for tuberculosis (TB) or pneumonia
  • eye problems such as glaucoma or cataracts
  • an enlarged prostate, difficulty passing urine or a blockage in your bladder
  • weak bones (osteoporosis)
  • any type of viral, bacterial or fungal infection
  • any other medical conditions
  • a problem with your immune system.

Check with your doctor before you use TRELEGY ELLIPTA if you think any of these apply to you. Your doctor can discuss with you the risks and benefits involved.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any other medicines, including any that you get without a prescription from your pharmacy, supermarket or health food shop. This should include all of the medicines that you are using for your COPD.

Some medicines and TRELEGY ELLIPTA may interfere with each other. These include:

  • medicines called beta blockers, to treat high blood pressure or other heart problems
  • ketoconazole, to treat fungal infections
  • ritonavir, to treat HIV
  • other long acting medicines similar to this medicine that are used to treat breathing problems (i.e. inhalers used as maintenance or preventer therapy)
  • medicines to treat depression or mood/mental disorders (such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclics antidepressants).

Your doctor and pharmacist have more information on medicines to be careful with or avoid while taking this medicine.

How to use TRELEGY ELLIPTA

Follow all directions given to you by your doctor or pharmacist carefully. They may differ from the information contained in this leaflet.

If you do not understand the instructions in the user leaflet, ask your doctor or pharmacist for help.

How much to use

Always use TRELEGY ELLIPTA exactly as your doctor has told you. Check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist if you're not sure.

The dose of TRELEGY ELLIPTA is one inhalation once daily at the same time each day.

Don't use more than your doctor tells you to use.

How to use the inhaler

The full instructions for using TRELEGY ELLIPTA are given on a leaflet inside the pack. A brief summary of the instructions is provided below.

TRELEGY ELLIPTA is ready to use straight away. No preparation or checks of the inhaler are required.

Step 1: Prepare a dose

  • Wait to open the cover until you are ready to take your dose. Slide the cover fully down until you hear a "click".

Do not open TRELEGY ELLIPTA until you are ready to take a dose.

Step 2: Inhale your medication

  • Whilst holding the inhaler away from your mouth, breathe out as far as is comfortable.
  • Put the mouthpiece between your lips, and close your lips firmly around it.

  • Take one long, steady, deep breath in. Hold this breath for about 3-4 seconds or as long as is comfortable.
  • Remove the inhaler from your mouth.
  • Breathe out slowly and gently away from the mouthpiece.

After using TRELEGY ELLIPTA, you may clean the mouthpiece, using a dry tissue, before you close the cover. Do not immerse TRELEGY ELLIPTA in water.

Step 3: Close the inhaler and rinse your mouth

  • Slide the cover upwards as far as it will go, to cover the mouthpiece.

When to use it

Use TRELEGY ELLIPTA regularly. It is very important that you use TRELEGY ELLIPTA every day, as instructed by your doctor. This will help to keep you free of symptoms throughout the day and night.

If you feel you are getting breathless or wheezy more often than normal, or if you are using a quick-acting inhaler (such as VENTOLIN) more than usual, see your doctor.

How long to use it

Use TRELEGY ELLIPTA for as long as your doctor recommends. It will only be effective as long as you are using it. Don't stop unless your doctor advises you to, even if you feel better.

If you forget to take it

If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the dose you missed and use your next dose when you are meant to. Otherwise, use it as soon as you remember, then go back to using it as you would normally.

Don't take an extra dose to make up for a missed dose.

If you are not sure what to do, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

If you become wheezy or breathless, use your quick-acting inhaler (e.g. VENTOLIN), then seek medical advice.

If you have trouble remembering to take your medicine, ask your pharmacist for some hints.

If you take too much (overdose)

In Australia, immediately telephone your doctor or the Poisons Information Centre (telephone 13 11 26) for advice, if you think that you or anyone else may have taken too much TRELEGY ELLIPTA. Do this even if there are no signs of discomfort or poisoning.

If you have used larger doses than instructed for a long period of time, it is particularly important that you ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice. This is because larger doses of TRELEGY ELLIPTA may reduce the amount of steroid hormones produced naturally by your body.

While you are using TRELEGY ELLIPTA

Things you must do

If you are about to be started on any new medicine, remind your doctor and pharmacist that you are taking TRELEGY ELLIPTA.

Contact your doctor if you experience a change in your vision.

Tell any other doctors, dentists, and pharmacists who treat you that you are taking this medicine.

If you are going to have surgery, tell the surgeon or anaesthetist that you are taking this medicine.

If you become pregnant while taking this medicine, tell your doctor immediately.

Keep all of your doctor's appointments so that your progress can be checked.

Things you must not do

Do not take TRELEGY ELLIPTA to treat any other complaints unless your doctor tells you to.

Do not give your medicine to anyone else, even if they have the same condition as you.

Do not stop taking your medicine or lower the dosage without checking with your doctor.

Check with your doctor if you are unsure about which medicines for COPD you should continue taking whilst being treated with TRELEGY ELLIPTA. You should stop taking any long-acting inhalers which contain inhaled corticosteroids or bronchodilators. However, you can continue to use a quick-acting inhaler (such as VENTOLIN) during an acute episode.

Things to be careful of

Be careful driving or operating machinery until you know how TRELEGY ELLIPTA affects you.

Side effects

Like all medicines, TRELEGY ELLIPTA can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.

Do not be alarmed by the following lists of side effects. You may not experience any of them.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist to answer any questions you may have.

Common side effects

These may affect up to 1 in 10 people:

  • sore, raised patches in the mouth or throat caused by a fungal infection (thrush). Rinsing your mouth out with water immediately after using TRELEGY ELLIPTA may help stop this side effect developing
  • common cold
  • headache
  • cough
  • painful and frequent urination (may be signs of a urinary tract infection)
  • joint pain
  • back pain
  • constipation
  • itchy, runny or blocked nose
  • pain in the back of the mouth and throat
  • inflammation of the sinuses
  • inflammation of the lungs (bronchitis)
  • flu (influenza)
  • infection of the nose, sinuses or throat
  • infection of the upper airways
  • infection of the lungs (pneumonia)*

*affected approximately 1 in 50 people in clinical trials. In general, risk factors for pneumonia in people with COPD receiving inhaled medicines containing a corticosteroid include smoking, prior pneumonia, low body weight and severe COPD.

Uncommon side effects

These may affect up to 1 in 100 people:

  • irregular heart beat
  • faster heart beat
  • dry mouth
  • hoarseness
  • weakening of the bones, leading to fractures.

If you think you are having an allergic reaction to TRELEGY ELLIPTA, stop using this medicine and tell your doctor immediately or go the accident and emergency department at your nearest hospital. Symptoms of an allergic reaction usually include some or all of the following:

  • shortness of breath
  • wheezing, coughing or difficulty breathing
  • swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body
  • rash, itching, redness or hives on the skin
  • suddenly feeling weak or light headed (may lead to collapse or loss of consciousness).

If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.

After using TRELEGY ELLIPTA

Storage

Do not use TRELEGY ELLIPTA after the expiry date shown on the pack.

Store in the original package container in order to protect from moisture and do not open the foil lid until ready to inhale for the first time.

Safely throw away TRELEGY ELLIPTA one month after you open the foil tray or when the counter reads "0", whichever comes first. Write the date the inhaler should be discarded on the label in the space provided. The date should be added as soon as the inhaler has been removed from the tray.

Keep your inhaler in a cool dry place where the temperature stays below 30°C.

If you store in a refrigerator allow the inhaler to return to room temperature for at least an hour before use.

Do not store TRELEGY ELLIPTA or any other medicine in the bathroom or near a sink. Do not leave it on a window sill or in the car. Heat and dampness can destroy some medicines.

Keep it where children cannot reach it. A locked cupboard at least one-and-a-half metres above the ground is a good place to store medicines.

Disposal

If your doctor tells you to stop taking this medicine or the expiry date has passed, ask your pharmacist what to do with any medicine that is left over.

Product description

What it looks like

TRELEGY ELLIPTA is inhaled through the mouth using the ELLIPTA device. The active ingredients are in separate blisters in powder form inside the device. There are either 14 or 30 blisters on each strip, and so each device contains either 14 or 30 doses depending on which pack size you have been given.

The ELLIPTA device itself is a plastic inhaler with a light grey body, a beige mouthpiece cover and a dose counter. It is packaged in a foil laminate tray with a peelable lid foil. The tray contains a desiccant sachet, to reduce moisture in the packaging. Once you have opened the lid of the tray, throw the desiccant away - do not open, eat or inhale it.

Ingredients

The active ingredients in TRELEGY ELLIPTA are fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide) and vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Each dose contains 100 micrograms of fluticasone furoate, 62.5 micrograms of umeclidinium (as bromide) and 25 micrograms of vilanterol (as trifenatate).

TRELEGY ELLIPTA also contains the inactive ingredients:

  • lactose monohydrate
  • magnesium stearate.

Supplier

TRELEGY ELLIPTA is supplied in Australia by:

GlaxoSmithKline Australia Pty Ltd
Level 4, 436 Johnston Street,
Abbotsford, Victoria 3067,
Australia.

Where to go for further information

Pharmaceutical companies are not in a position to give people an individual diagnosis or medical advice. Your doctor or pharmacist is the best person to give you advice on the treatment of your condition. You may also be able to find general information about your disease and its treatment from patient information groups and books, for example in public libraries.

Information on COPD is available from the website of the Lung Foundation Australia (https://lungfoundation.com.au/).

A copy of this CMI is available from the GSK Australia website (www.gsk.com.au/trelegy).

The information provided applies only to TRELEGY ELLIPTA.

TRELEGY ELLIPTA: AUST R 284636

Trade marks are owned by or licensed to the GSK group of companies.

© 2018 GSK group of companies or licensor.

This leaflet was prepared on 14 September 2018.

Version 2.0

Published by MIMS January 2019

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Trelegy Ellipta

Active ingredient

Fluticasone furoate; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol

Schedule

S4

 

1 Name of Medicine

Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium (as bromide)/vilanterol (as trifenatate).

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Each foil strip contains regularly distributed blisters with one strip containing 100 micrograms of fluticasone furoate and the other strip containing 62.5 micrograms of umeclidinium (equivalent to 74.2 micrograms umeclidinium [as bromide]) and 25 micrograms of vilanterol (as trifenatate).
Each delivered dose (the dose leaving the mouthpiece of the inhaler) contains 92 micrograms fluticasone furoate, 55 micrograms umeclidinium (equivalent to 65 micrograms umeclidinium [as bromide]) and 22 micrograms vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Excipients with known effect.

Lactose monohydrate (which contains milk protein).
For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

Powder for inhalation.
White powder in a light grey inhaler (Ellipta) with a beige mouthpiece cover and a dose counter.

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Trelegy Ellipta is indicated for the maintenance treatment of adults with moderate to severe COPD who require treatment with LAMA+LABA+ICS.
Trelegy Ellipta is not indicated for the initiation of therapy in COPD.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

Patients can be changed from their existing inhalers to Trelegy Ellipta at the next dose. However, it is important that patients do not take other long-acting beta2-receptor agonists (LABA) or long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMA) or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) while taking Trelegy Ellipta.
A stepwise approach to the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recommended, including the cessation of smoking and a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Trelegy Ellipta is not to be used as initial therapy, but may be considered as step-up from LAMA/LABA or ICS/LABA or for patients already taking LAMA+LABA+ICS.

Dose.

Adults.

The recommended and maximum dose is one inhalation of Trelegy Ellipta 100/62.5/25 once daily either morning or evening but at the same time every day. This equates to a maximum daily dose containing fluticasone furoate 100 micrograms, umeclidinium (as bromide) 62.5 micrograms, and vilanterol (as trifenatate) 25 micrograms.

Special populations.

Paediatric populations.

Use in patients less than 18 years of age is not relevant given the indication for this product.

Elderly population.

No dosage adjustment is required in patients over 65 years (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties, Special patient populations).

Renal impairment.

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties, Special patient populations).

Hepatic impairment.

No dosage adjustment is required in patients with hepatic impairment. Umeclidinium has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use; Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties, Special patient populations).

Method of administration.

Trelegy Ellipta is for oral inhalation only. After inhalation, the patient should rinse their mouth with water without swallowing.

How to use Trelegy Ellipta.

What is the Ellipta inhaler?

Trelegy Ellipta is inhaled through the mouth using the Ellipta inhaler.
When you first use the Ellipta inhaler you do not need to check that it is working properly, and you do not need to prepare it for use in any special way. Just follow these step by step instructions.
The inhaler is packaged in a tray. Do not open the tray until you are ready to inhale a dose of your medicine. When you are ready to use your inhaler, peel back the lid to open the tray. The tray contains a desiccant sachet, to reduce moisture. Throw this desiccant sachet away - do not open, eat or inhale it.
When you take the inhaler out of the sealed tray, it will be in the 'closed' position. Do not open the inhaler until you are ready to inhale a dose of medicine. Write the "Discard by" date on the inhaler label in the space provided. The "Discard by" date is 1 month from the date you open the tray. After this date, the inhaler should no longer be used.
The step-by-step instructions shown below for the 30-dose (30-day supply) Ellipta inhaler also apply to the 14-dose (14-day supply) Ellipta inhaler.
Important information to read before you start.
If you open and close the cover without inhaling the medicine, you will lose the dose.
The lost dose will be securely held inside the inhaler, but it will no longer be available.
It is not possible to accidentally take extra medicine or a double dose in one inhalation. See Figure 1.

Step 1: prepare a dose.

Wait to open the cover until you are ready to take your dose.
Do not shake the inhaler.
Slide the cover fully down until you hear a 'click'. See Figure 2.
Your medicine is now ready to be inhaled.
The dose counter counts down by 1 to confirm.
If the dose counter does not count down as you hear the 'click', the inhaler will not deliver medicine.
Take it back to your pharmacist for advice.
Do not shake the inhaler at any time.

Step 2: inhale your medicine.

Whilst holding the inhaler away from your mouth, breathe out as far as is comfortable.
Do not breathe out into the inhaler.
Put the mouthpiece between your lips, and close your lips firmly around it.
Do not block the air vent with your fingers. See Figure 3.
Take one long, steady, deep breath in. Hold this breath for about 3-4 seconds or for as long as is comfortable.
Remove the inhaler from your mouth.
Breathe out slowly and gently away from the mouthpiece.
You may not be able to taste or feel the medicine, even when you are using the inhaler correctly.
If you want to clean the mouthpiece, use a dry tissue, before you close the cover.

Step 3: close the inhaler and rinse your mouth.

Slide the cover upwards as far as it will go, to cover the mouthpiece. See Figure 4.
Rinse your mouth with water without swallowing after you have used the inhaler.
This will make it less likely that you will develop a sore mouth or throat as side effects.

4.3 Contraindications

Trelegy Ellipta is contraindicated in patients with severe milk-protein allergy or who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, vilanterol or any of the excipients.

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

COPD.

Treatment of COPD should be in accordance with relevant clinical guidelines. Patients should have a personal action plan designed in association with their treating physician.

Asthma.

Trelegy Ellipta should not be used in patients with asthma since it has not been studied in this population.

Pneumonia.

Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in patients with COPD, as the clinical features of such infections overlap with the symptoms of COPD exacerbations. In line with the known class effect of inhaled corticosteroids, pneumonia events (including pneumonias resulting in hospitalisation) were observed in patients with COPD receiving fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol. In some instances, fatal events of pneumonia have been reported with use of inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate)-containing drugs (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)). Risk factors for pneumonia in patients with COPD receiving inhaled corticosteroid-containing drugs include current smoking status, history of pneumonia, low body mass index and severe COPD. These factors should be considered when Trelegy Ellipta is prescribed, and treatment re-evaluated if pneumonia occurs.

Exacerbations.

Trelegy Ellipta is intended for the maintenance treatment of COPD. It should not be used for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e. as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting bronchodilator.
Increasing use of short-acting bronchodilators to relieve symptoms indicates deterioration of control and patients should be reviewed by a physician.
Patients should not stop therapy with Trelegy Ellipta without physician supervision since symptoms may recur after discontinuation.

Paradoxical bronchospasm.

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing, and may be life-threatening. Treatment with Trelegy Ellipta should be discontinued immediately, the patient assessed and alternative therapy instituted if necessary.

Cardiovascular effects.

Cardiovascular effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias e.g. atrial fibrillation and tachycardia, may be seen after the administration of muscarinic receptor antagonists or sympathomimetic agents, including umeclidinium or vilanterol, respectively. Therefore Trelegy Ellipta should be used with caution in patients with unstable or life-threatening cardiovascular disease.

Patients with hepatic impairment.

Patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment receiving Trelegy Ellipta should be monitored for systemic corticosteroid-related adverse reactions (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties, Special patient populations).

Systemic corticosteroid effects.

Systemic effects may occur with any inhaled corticosteroid, particularly at high doses prescribed for long periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, decrease in bone mineral density, and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression.
Ocular effects may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with a change in vision, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR).
Inhaled corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infections of the respiratory tract; systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex.

Antimuscarinic activity.

Consistent with its antimuscarinic activity, Trelegy Ellipta should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma or urinary retention. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g. eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or coloured images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal oedema). Instruct patients to consult a healthcare provider immediately if any of these signs or symptoms develops.

Use in the elderly.

There are no special precautions for use in the elderly.

Paediatric use.

Trelegy Ellipta should not be used in children.

Effects on laboratory tests.

Interactions with laboratory tests have not been established.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

Clinically significant drug interactions mediated by fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide) or vilanterol (as trifenatate) at clinical doses are considered unlikely due to the low plasma concentrations achieved after inhaled dosing.

Interaction with beta-blockers.

Beta-adrenergic blockers may weaken or antagonise the effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists, such as vilanterol. Concurrent use of both non-selective and selective beta-blockers should be avoided unless there are compelling reasons for their use.

Interaction with CYP3A4 inhibitors.

Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol are both rapidly cleared by extensive first-pass metabolism mediated by the enzyme CYP3A4.
A repeat-dose study was performed in healthy subjects with the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination (200/25 micrograms) and ketoconazole (400 milligrams, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and P-gp inhibitor). Co-administration increased mean fluticasone furoate AUC(0-24) and Cmax by 36% and 33%, respectively. The increase in fluticasone furoate exposure was associated with a 27% reduction in 0-24 hours weighted mean serum cortisol. Co-administration increased mean vilanterol AUC(0-t) and Cmax by 65% and 22%, respectively. The increase in vilanterol exposure was not associated with an increase in beta-agonist related systemic effects on heart rate or blood potassium.
Care is advised when co-administering with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, ritonavir) as there will be increased systemic exposure to both fluticasone furoate and vilanterol, which could lead to an increase in the potential for adverse reactions (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties).

Interaction with P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

Fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol are substrates of P-gp. A repeat dose drug interaction study performed in healthy subjects who were administered with umeclidinium/vilanterol or umeclidinium, and the P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor verapamil (240 milligrams), did not show any clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of vilanterol or umeclidinium.

Interaction with CYP2D6 inhibitors.

Umeclidinium is a substrate of CYP2D6 enzyme. The effect of a CYP2D6-poor metaboliser genotype on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium was assessed in healthy volunteers (CYP2D6 normal metabolisers and CYP2D6 poor metabolisers). No clinically meaningful difference in systemic exposure to umeclidinium (500 micrograms) was observed following repeat daily inhaled dosing to normal and CYP2D6-poor metaboliser subjects.

Interaction with sympathomimetic medicinal products.

Concomitant administration of other sympathomimetic agents (alone or as part of combination therapy) may potentiate the undesirable effects of Trelegy Ellipta. Trelegy Ellipta should not be used in conjunction with other LABAs or medicinal products containing LABAs.

Interaction with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants.

Vilanterol, like other beta2-agonists, should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, or drugs known to prolong the QTc interval because the effect of adrenergic agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by these agents. Drugs that are known to prolong the QTc interval have an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias.

Other LAMAs and LABAs.

Co-administration of Trelegy Ellipta with other LAMAs or LABAs has not been studied and is not recommended as it may potentiate the adverse reactions (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects); Section 4.9 Overdose).

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

There are no data on the effects of Trelegy Ellipta on human fertility. Studies in rats showed no effect of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol on male or female fertility at doses of the individual agents producing large or very large multiples of the systemic exposure in humans.
(Category B3)
There are insufficient data from the use of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in pregnant women. Corticosteroids and beta2-agonists have been shown to be teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels.
Fluticasone furoate was not teratogenic in studies by the inhalational route in rats and rabbits, but it caused decreased fetal weight and impaired ossification in rats (at 91 micrograms/kg/day) and abortion in rabbits (at doses of 47 micrograms/kg/day and greater), occurring in conjunction with maternotoxicity. There were no adverse effects on embryofetal development in rats at 23 micrograms/kg/day, yielding systemic exposure approximately 7-fold the human clinical exposure at 92 micrograms delivered dose of fluticasone furoate based on AUC, and there were no developmental effects in a prenatal and postnatal study in rats (at doses up to 27 micrograms/kg/day).
Embryofetal development was unaffected by umeclidinium in rats treated at up to 278 micrograms/kg/day by inhalation (estimated to yield almost 40-fold the human clinical exposure at 55 micrograms delivered dose of umeclidinium per day) and in rabbits treated at up to 306 micrograms/kg/day by inhalation or up to 180 micrograms/kg/day subcutaneously (yielding approximately 27- and 150-fold the plasma AUC in patients). In a pre- and post-natal study, subcutaneous administration of umeclidinium to rats resulted in lower maternal body weight gain and food consumption and slightly decreased pre-weaning pup body weights in dams given 180 micrograms/kg/day (equivalent to approximately 61-fold the human clinical exposure at 55 micrograms delivered dose of umeclidinium, based on AUC).
In rabbits, there was evidence of maternal toxicity and embryotoxicity following inhalation exposure to vilanterol (as trifenatate) at 591 and 62.7 micrograms/kg/day, respectively (equivalent to 118- and 10-fold the clinical exposure at 22 micrograms/day delivered dose of vilanterol, based on AUC). A non-dose related increase in malformations, including the rare open eyelid, was also observed. In a separate study with subcutaneous exposure, increased incidence of open eye and increase in skeletal variations (indicative of developmental delay) occurred at 300 micrograms/kg/day (equivalent to approximately 845-fold the clinical exposure at 22 micrograms/day delivered dose of vilanterol based on AUC) with a NOAEL of 30 micrograms/kg/day (equivalent to 62-fold the clinical exposure at 22 micrograms/day delivered dose of vilanterol based on AUC). Vilanterol had no adverse effect on pre- or post-natal development in rats.
Trelegy Ellipta should be used during pregnancy only if the expected benefit to the mother justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is unknown whether fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, vilanterol or their metabolites are excreted in human milk. However, other corticosteroids, muscarinic antagonists and beta2-agonists are detected in human milk. A risk to breast-fed newborns/infants cannot be excluded.
A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue Trelegy Ellipta therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

There have been no studies to investigate the effect of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol on the ability to perform tasks that require judgement, motor or cognitive skills.
A detrimental effect on such activities would not be anticipated from the pharmacology of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide) or vilanterol (as trifenatate) at clinical doses.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Clinical trial data.

The safety profile of Trelegy Ellipta (fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol) is based on data from two phase III clinical studies (CTT116853 and CTT116855).
The first study (CTT116853, FULFIL) included 911 patients with COPD who received doses of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol 100/62.5/25 micrograms once daily for up to 24 weeks, of whom 210 patients received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol 100/62.5/25 micrograms once daily for up to 52 weeks, with an active comparator, budesonide/formoterol 400/12 micrograms twice daily.
The second study (CTT116855, IMPACT) included 4,151 patients with COPD who received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol 100/62.5/25 micrograms once daily for up to 52 weeks, with two active comparators, fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI 100/25 micrograms) and umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI 62.5/25 micrograms).

Study 1 (CTT116853).

Adverse events following 24 weeks of treatment are presented in Table 1.
In a subset of subjects, in addition to adverse events reported in Table 1, adverse events occurring at a rate of greater than or equal to 1% in subjects receiving fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol for up to 52 weeks (n = 210) were viral respiratory tract infection, oropharyngeal pain and hypertension.

Study 2 (CTT116855, IMPACT).

The most frequently reported adverse events are presented in Table 2.
Adverse reactions from studies CTT116853 and CTT116855 are listed in Table 3 by MedDRA system organ class and by frequency. Where adverse reaction frequencies differed between studies, the higher frequency is reported. The following convention has been used for the classification of adverse reactions:
Very common: ≥ 1/10; common: ≥ 1/100 to < 1/10; uncommon: ≥ 1/1000 to < 1/100; rare: ≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1000; very rare: < 1/10,000.

Description of selected adverse reactions.

*Pneumonia (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).

In Study CTT116853 which had a total of 1810 patients with COPD FEV1 45% of predicted (standard deviation [SD] 13%) (mean post bronchodilation), 65% of whom had experienced a moderate/severe COPD exacerbation in the year prior to study entry, a higher incidence of pneumonia events was reported in patients receiving fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (20 patients, 2%) than in patients receiving budesonide/formoterol (7 patients, < 1%). Pneumonia which required hospitalisation occurred in 1% of patients receiving fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol and < 1% of patients receiving budesonide/formoterol up to 24 weeks. One fatal case of pneumonia was reported in a patient who received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol, however this was not considered to be related to the study treatment. However, in the subset of 430 patients treated for up to 52 weeks, the incidence of pneumonia events reported in the fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol and budesonide/formoterol arms was equal at 2%.
In a 52-week study, a total of 10,355 patients with COPD with a history of moderate or severe exacerbations within the prior 12 months (mean post-bronchodilator screening FEV1 46% of predicted, SD 15%) (Study CTT116855), the incidence of pneumonia was 8% for fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (n=4,151), 7% for fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (n=4,134), and 5% for umeclidinium/vilanterol (n=2,070). Fatal pneumonia occurred in 12 of 4,151 patients (3.5 per 1,000 patient-years) receiving fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol, 5 of 4,134 patients (1.7 per 1,000 patient-years) receiving fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, and 5 of 2,070 patients (2.9 per 1,000 patient-years) receiving umeclidinium/vilanterol.

Post marketing data.

See Table 4.

Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.

4.9 Overdose

No data from clinical studies are available regarding overdose of Trelegy Ellipta.

Symptoms and signs.

An overdose of Trelegy Ellipta may produce signs, symptoms or adverse effects associated with the individual components' pharmacological actions (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use; Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties).

Treatment.

There is no specific treatment for an overdose with Trelegy Ellipta. If overdose occurs, the patient should be treated supportively with appropriate monitoring as necessary.
Cardioselective beta-blockade should only be considered for profound vilanterol overdose effects that are clinically concerning and unresponsive to supportive measures. Cardioselective beta-blocking drugs should be used with caution in patients with a history of bronchospasm.
Further management should be as clinically indicated.
For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 (Australia).

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs for obstructive airways diseases, Adrenergics in combination with anticholinergics including triple combinations with corticosteroids, ATC code: R03AL08.

Mechanism of action.

Fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide) and vilanterol (as trifenatate) represent three classes of medications: a synthetic corticosteroid (presented here as an inhaled corticosteroid [ICS]), a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (also referred to as a LAMA) and a selective, long-acting beta2-receptor agonist (also referred to as a LABA), respectively.

Fluticasone furoate.

Fluticasone furoate is a synthetic trifluorinated corticosteroid with potent anti-inflammatory activity. The precise mechanism through which fluticasone furoate affects COPD symptoms is not known. Corticosteroids have been shown to have a wide range of actions on multiple cell types (e.g. eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g. cytokines and chemokines) involved in inflammation.

Umeclidinium (as bromide).

Umeclidinium (as bromide) is a LAMA. It is a quinuclidine derivative that is a muscarinic receptor antagonist with activity across multiple muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes. Umeclidinium exerts its bronchodilatory activity by competitively inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on airway smooth muscle. It demonstrates slow reversibility at the human M3 muscarinic receptor subtype in vitro and a long duration of action in vivo when administered directly to the lungs in pre-clinical models.

Vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Vilanterol (as trifenatate) is a selective LABA.
The pharmacologic effects of beta2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs, including vilanterol (as trifenatate), are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenylate cyclase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast cells.

Pharmacodynamics.

Cardiovascular effects.

The effect of the triple combination of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium (as bromide)/vilanterol (as trifenatate) (hereafter referred to as fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol or FF/UMEC/VI) on the QT interval has not been evaluated in a thorough QT (TQT) study. TQT studies for fluticasone furoate/vilanterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol did not show clinically relevant effects on QT interval at clinical doses of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol (see below).
The effect of umeclidinium/vilanterol on the QT interval was evaluated in a placebo and moxifloxacin controlled QT study involving once daily administration of umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 micrograms or 500/100 micrograms for 10 days in 103 healthy volunteers. The maximum mean difference in prolongations of QT interval (corrected using the Fridericia method, QTcF) from placebo after baseline-correction was 4.3 (90% CI: 2.2, 6.4) milliseconds seen 10 minutes after administration with umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 micrograms and 8.2 (90% CI: 6.2, 10.2) milliseconds seen 30 minutes after administration with umeclidinium/vilanterol 500/100 micrograms. No clinically relevant effect on prolongation of QT interval (corrected using the Fridericia method) was observed.
In addition, no clinically significant effects of umeclidinium/vilanterol on cardiac rhythm were observed on 24-hour Holter monitoring in 281 patients who received umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 micrograms once daily for up to 12 months.
The effect of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol on the QT interval was evaluated in a double-blind, multiple-dose, placebo- and positive-controlled crossover study in 85 healthy volunteers. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in QTcF from placebo after baseline-correction was 4.9 (7.5) milliseconds and 9.6 (12.2) milliseconds seen 30 minutes after dosing with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 200/25 micrograms and fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 800/100 micrograms, respectively. A dose-dependent increase in heart rate was also observed. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in heart rate from placebo after baseline-correction was 7.8 (9.4) beats/min and 17.1 (18.7) beats/min seen 10 minutes after dosing with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 200/25 micrograms and fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 800/100 micrograms, respectively.
No clinically relevant effects on the QTc interval were observed on review of centrally-read ECGs from 911 subjects with COPD exposed to fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol for up to 24 weeks, or in the subset of 210 subjects exposed for up to 52 weeks.

Clinical trials.

Study 1 (CTT116853, FULFIL).

The efficacy of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25 micrograms) administered as a once-daily treatment in patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD has been evaluated in one 24-week active-controlled study (compared to budesonide/formoterol [BUD/FOR]) with an extension up to 52 weeks in a subset of patients.
All patients were required to have a smoking history of at least 10 pack years; a post-salbutamol FEV1/ FVC ratio < 0.70; a clinical diagnosis of COPD, and a post-bronchodilator FEV1 of < 50% predicted normal or a post-bronchodilator FEV1 < 80% predicted normal and a history of ≥ 2 moderate exacerbations or one severe (hospitalised) exacerbation in the previous 12 months at screening. At screening, the mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 was 45.5% predicted, and the mean reversibility was 8.17%. Approximately 55% of patients had a history of ≥ 2 moderate or ≥ 1 severe COPD exacerbations in the 12 months prior to screening.
FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25 micrograms administered once daily demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in lung function (as defined by change from baseline trough FEV1 at Week 24; co-primary endpoint) compared with BUD/FOR 400/12 micrograms administered twice-daily (see Table 5).
FF/UMEC/VI demonstrated a statistically significant improvement compared with BUD/FOR at Week 24 for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score (co-primary endpoint), SGRQ responder analysis, and also for respiratory symptoms measured using the Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms in COPD (E-RS: COPD) score and sub-scale scores over Weeks 21-24, and breathlessness measured using the Transitional Dyspnoea Index (TDI) focal score at Week 24 (see Table 5).
FF/UMEC/VI demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations (i.e. requiring treatment with antibiotics or corticosteroids or hospitalisation; extrapolated from data up to Week 24) compared with BUD/FOR (see Table 5).
The lung function, HRQoL, symptoms and exacerbations outcomes up to 52 weeks of treatment in a subset of patients (n = 430) were consistent with the results up to 24 weeks.

Study 2 (CTT116855, IMPACT).

The long-term efficacy of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25 micrograms) administered once daily in patients with COPD with a history of moderate or severe exacerbations within the prior 12 months has been evaluated in a 52-week, active-controlled study compared with the fixed-dose combination of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI 100/25 micrograms) and umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI 62.5/25 micrograms) (randomisation 2:2:1). At screening, approximately 90% of patients were using medications to control COPD: 34% triple therapy (ICS + LABA + LAMA), 26% combined ICS and LABA, 8% combined LAMA and LABA, 7% LAMA and 2% LABA monotherapy.
Patients treated with FF/UMEC/VI demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the annual rate of on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbations (primary endpoint) compared with FF/VI and compared with UMEC/VI. See Table 6 for efficacy endpoint results.
The effects on lung function (change from baseline trough FEV1) of FF/UMEC/VI compared with FF/VI and UMEC/VI for trough FEV1 were observed at all timepoints over the course of the 52-week study (see Figure 5).

Other supporting efficacy studies.

Umeclidinium with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol.

In two 12-week, placebo controlled studies (200109 and 200110), the addition of umeclidinium (62.5 micrograms) to fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) (100/25 micrograms) once daily in adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD, resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in the primary endpoint of trough FEV1 at Day 85 compared with placebo plus FF/VI (124 mL [95% CI: 93, 154, p < 0.001] in Study 200109 and 122 mL [95% CI: 91, 152, p < 0.001] in Study 200110).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

When fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide) and vilanterol (as trifenatate) were administered in combination by the inhaled route from a single inhaler in healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetics of each component were similar to those observed when each active substance was administered either as fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination, umeclidinium/vilanterol combination or umeclidinium monotherapy.
Population PK analyses for fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) were conducted using a combined dataset from three, phase III studies in 821 COPD subjects. Based on data from this analysis and historical datasets, systemic drug levels (steady state Cmax and AUC) of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide) and vilanterol (as trifenatate) following fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in one inhaler (triple combination) were within the range of those observed following fluticasone furoate/vilanterol + umeclidinium as two inhalers, dual combinations (fluticasone furoate/vilanterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol) as well as individual single inhalers (fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol).

Absorption.

Fluticasone furoate.

Following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in healthy subjects, fluticasone furoate Cmax occurred at 15 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of fluticasone furoate when administrated as fluticasone furoate/vilanterol by inhalation was on average 15.2%, primarily due to absorption of the inhaled portion of the dose delivered to the lung, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, steady state was achieved within 6 days with up to 1.6-fold accumulation.

Umeclidinium (as bromide).

Following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in healthy subjects, umeclidinium Cmax occurred at 5 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of inhaled umeclidinium was on average 13%, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled umeclidinium, steady state was achieved within 7 to 10 days with 1.5 to 2-fold accumulation.

Vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in healthy subjects, vilanterol Cmax occurred at 7 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of inhaled vilanterol was on average 27%, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, steady state was achieved within 6 days with up to 1.5-fold accumulation.

Distribution.

Fluticasone furoate.

Following intravenous dosing, fluticasone furoate is extensively distributed with an average volume of distribution at steady state of 661 L.
Fluticasone furoate has a low association with red blood cells. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma of fluticasone furoate was high, on average > 99.6%. There was no decrease in the extent of in vitro plasma protein binding in subjects with renal or hepatic impairment.
Fluticasone furoate is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, concomitant administration of fluticasone furoate with P-gp inhibitors is considered unlikely to alter fluticasone furoate systemic exposure. Clinical pharmacology studies with selective P-gp inhibitors and fluticasone furoate have not been conducted.

Umeclidinium (as bromide).

Following intravenous administration to healthy subjects, the mean volume of distribution was 86 L. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 89%.

Vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Following intravenous administration to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution at steady state was 165 L. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 94%.

Metabolism.

Fluticasone furoate.

Based on in vitro data, the major routes of metabolism of fluticasone furoate in humans are mediated primarily by CYP3A4.
Fluticasone furoate is primarily metabolised through hydrolysis of the S-fluoromethyl carbothioate group to metabolites with significantly reduced corticosteroid activity.
A repeat-dose CYP3A4 drug interaction study was performed in healthy subjects with the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination (200/25 micrograms) and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole (400 milligrams). Co-administration increased mean fluticasone furoate AUC(0-24) and Cmax by 36% and 33%, respectively. The increase in fluticasone furoate exposure was associated with a 27% reduction in 0-24 hour weighted mean serum cortisol.

Umeclidinium (as bromide).

In vitro studies showed that umeclidinium is metabolised principally by CYP2D6 and is a substrate for the P-gp transporter. The primary metabolic routes for umeclidinium are oxidative (hydroxylation, O-dealkylation) followed by conjugation (glucuronidation, etc), resulting in a range of metabolites with either reduced pharmacological activity or for which the pharmacological activity has not been established. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.

Vilanterol (as trifenatate).

In vitro studies showed that vilanterol is metabolised principally via CYP3A4 and is a substrate for the P-gp transporter. The primary metabolic routes are O-dealkylation to a range of metabolites with significantly reduced beta1- and beta2- agonist activity. Plasma metabolic profiles following oral administration of vilanterol in a human radiolabel study were consistent with high first-pass metabolism. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.

Excretion.

Fluticasone furoate.

Following intravenous administration, the elimination phase half-life averaged 15.1 hours. Plasma clearance following intravenous administration was 65.4 L/hour. Urinary excretion accounted for approximately 2% of the intravenously administered dose.
Following oral administration, fluticasone furoate was eliminated in humans mainly by metabolism with metabolites being excreted almost exclusively in faeces. Less than 1% of the recovered radioactive dose was eliminated in the urine. The apparent plasma elimination half-life following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate was, on average, 24 hours.

Umeclidinium (as bromide).

Plasma clearance following intravenous administration was 151 L/hour. Following intravenous administration, approximately 58% of the administered radiolabelled dose (or 73% of the recovered radioactivity) was excreted in faeces by 192 hours post-dose. Urinary elimination accounted for 22% of the administered radiolabelled dose by 168 hours (27% of recovered radioactivity). The excretion of the drug-related material in the faeces following intravenous dosing indicated secretion into the bile. Following oral administration to healthy male subjects, total radioactivity was excreted primarily in faeces (92% of the administered radiolabelled dose or 99% of the recovered radioactivity) by 168 hours post-dose. Less than 1% of the orally administered dose (1% of recovered radioactivity) was excreted in urine, suggesting negligible absorption following oral administration. Umeclidinium plasma elimination half-life following inhaled dosing for 10 days averaged 19 hours, with 3% to 4% drug excreted unchanged in urine at steady-state.

Vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Plasma clearance of vilanterol following intravenous administration was 108 L/hour. Following oral administration of radiolabelled vilanterol, mass balance showed 70% of the radiolabel in urine and 30% in faeces. Primary elimination of vilanterol was by metabolism followed by excretion of metabolites in urine and faeces. Vilanterol plasma elimination half-life following inhaled dosing for 10 days averaged 11 hours.

Special patient populations.

Race.

The effects of race on the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol were evaluated in the population pharmacokinetic analysis. In 113 East Asian subjects with COPD (Japanese and East Asian heritage) who received FF/UMEC/VI from a single inhaler (27% subjects), estimates of fluticasone furoate AUC(0-24) were on average 30% higher compared with Caucasian subjects. However, these higher systemic exposures are not expected to have a clinically relevant effect on 24 hour serum or urinary cortisol excretion. There was no effect of race on pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium or vilanterol in subjects with COPD.
No clinically relevant differences requiring dose adjustment based on race were observed in fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol systemic exposure.

Elderly.

The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol were evaluated in the population pharmacokinetic analysis. No clinically relevant effects requiring dose adjustment were observed.

Renal impairment.

Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol has not been evaluated in subjects with renal impairment. However, such studies have been conducted with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol.
A clinical pharmacology study of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol showed that severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) did not result in significantly greater exposure to fluticasone furoate or vilanterol or more marked corticosteroid or beta2-agonist systemic effects compared with healthy subjects.
A study in subjects with severe renal impairment administered with umeclidinium/vilanterol showed no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to either umeclidinium or vilanterol (Cmax and AUC). In vitro protein binding studies between subjects with severe renal impairment and healthy volunteers were conducted, and no clinically significant evidence of altered protein binding was seen.
The effects of haemodialysis have not been studied.

Hepatic impairment.

Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol has not been evaluated in subjects with hepatic impairment. However, such studies have been conducted with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol.
Following repeat dosing of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol for 7 days, there was an increase in fluticasone furoate systemic exposure (up to three-fold as measured by AUC(0-24)) in subjects with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A, B or C) compared with healthy subjects. The increase in fluticasone furoate systemic exposure in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) following repeat-dose administration (fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 200/25 micrograms) was associated with an average 34% reduction in serum cortisol compared with healthy subjects. In subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) that received fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/12.5 micrograms, there was no reduction in serum cortisol (10% increase in serum cortisol).
Following repeat dosing of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol for 7 days, there was no significant increase in systemic exposure to vilanterol (Cmax and AUC) in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A, B or C).
There were no clinically relevant effects of the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination on beta-adrenergic systemic effects (heart rate or serum potassium) in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (vilanterol, 25 micrograms) or with severe hepatic impairment (vilanterol, 12.5 micrograms) compared with healthy subjects.
Subjects with moderate hepatic impairment showed no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to either umeclidinium or vilanterol (Cmax and AUC), and no evidence of altered protein binding by umeclidinium or decreased protein binding by vilanterol between subjects with moderate hepatic impairment and healthy volunteers was observed in vitro.
Umeclidinium has not been evaluated in subjects with severe hepatic impairment.

Other patient characteristics.

Population pharmacokinetic analyses in COPD subjects treated with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol, fluticasone furoate/vilanterol or umeclidinium/vilanterol showed that no dose adjustment is required for fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol based on the effect of gender, weight or body mass index. In terms of other patient characteristics, a study in CYP2D6-poor metabolisers showed no evidence of a clinically significant effect of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on systemic exposure to umeclidinium.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Genotoxicity.

Fluticasone furoate was not genotoxic in a standard battery of studies, comprising bacterial mutation (Ames) assays, mouse lymphoma assay and rat bone marrow micronucleus tests.
Umeclidinium was not genotoxic in a standard battery of studies, comprising bacterial mutation assays, the mouse lymphoma tk assay and the rat bone marrow micronucleus test.
Vilanterol was negative in a complete battery of in vitro (Ames, UDS, SHE cell) assays and in vivo (rat bone marrow micronucleus) assays and equivocal in the mouse lymphoma assay. The weight of evidence suggests that vilanterol does not pose a genotoxic risk.

Carcinogenicity.

No carcinogenicity studies were performed with the fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol combination.
Fluticasone furoate was not carcinogenic in lifetime inhalation studies in rats or mice at exposures of 1.4- or 2.9-fold, respectively, than in humans at 92 micrograms delivered dose/day, based on AUC.
Umeclidinium was not carcinogenic in 2-year inhalation studies in mice or rats at doses yielding systemic exposure levels (plasma AUC) ≥ 20- or 17-fold the human clinical exposure of umeclidinium at 55 micrograms delivered dose/day in the respective species.
Proliferative effects in the female rat and mouse reproductive tract and rat pituitary gland were observed in lifetime inhalation studies with vilanterol, consistent with findings for other beta2-agonists. There was no increase in tumour incidence in rats or mice at exposures 0.9 or 22-fold, respectively, the human clinical exposure of vilanterol at 22 micrograms delivered dose/day, based on AUC. These findings are not considered to indicate that vilanterol poses a carcinogenic hazard to patients.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

Lactose monohydrate (which contains milk protein), magnesium stearate.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Incompatibilities were either not assessed or not identified as part of the registration of this medicine.

6.3 Shelf Life

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the packaging.
Following removal from the tray, the product may be stored for a maximum period of 1 month.
Write the date that the inhaler should be discarded on the label in the space provided. The date should be added as soon as the inhaler has been removed from the tray.

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

Store below 30°C.
If stored in the refrigerator, allow the inhaler to return to room temperature for at least 1 hour before use.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

Trelegy Ellipta is a moulded plastic dry powder inhaler with a light grey body, a beige mouthpiece cover and a dose counter, packed in a foil tray containing a desiccant sachet. The tray is sealed with a peelable foil lid.
The inhaler contains two strips of either 14 or 30 regularly distributed blisters.
Not all pack sizes may be distributed in Australia.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of by taking to your local pharmacy.

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

Fluticasone furoate is practically insoluble or insoluble in water, and slightly soluble in acetone, dimethylsulphoxide and ethanol.
Umeclidinium (as bromide) is slightly soluble in water and slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and propan-1-ol.
Vilanterol (as trifenatate) is practically insoluble or insoluble in water and slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and propan-2-ol.

Chemical structure.

Fluticasone furoate.

Chemical name: androsta-1,4-diene-17-carbothioic acid, 6,9-difluoro-17-[(2-furanylcarbonyl)oxy]-11-hydroxy-16-methyl-3-oxo-, S-(fluoromethyl) ester, (6α,11β,16α,17α)- (9Cl).
Molecular formula: C27H29F3O6S.
Structure:

Umeclidinium (as bromide).

Chemical name: 1-Azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 4- (hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1-[2-(phenylmethoxy)ethyl]-, bromide (1:1).
Molecular formula: C29H34BrNO2.
Structure:

Vilanterol (as trifenatate).

Chemical name: benzeneacetic acid, α,α-diphenyl-, compd. with (α1R)-α1-[[[6-[2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)methoxy]ethoxy] hexyl]amino]methyl]-4-hydroxy-1,3-benzene dimethanol (1:1).
Molecular formula: C24H33Cl2NO5.C20H16O2.
Structure:

CAS number.

Fluticasone furoate: 397864-44-7.
Umeclidinium (as bromide): 869113-09-7.
Vilanterol (as trifenatate): 503070-58-4.

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

Schedule 4 - Prescription Only Medicine.

Summary Table of Changes