Consumer medicine information

Xylocaine and xylocaine with adrenaline injection

Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride; Adrenaline (epinephrine) acid tartrate

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Xylocaine Ampoules (with Adrenaline 1:100,000) Solution for injection

Active ingredient

Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride; Adrenaline (epinephrine) acid tartrate

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Xylocaine and xylocaine with adrenaline injection.

What is in this leaflet

This leaflet answers some of the common questions people ask about Xylocaine. It does not contain all the information that is known about Xylocaine.

It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.

All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor will have weighed the risks of you taking Xylocaine against the benefits they expect it will have for you.

If you have any concerns about being given this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Keep this leaflet with the medicine.

You may need to read it again.

What XYLOCAINE is for

Xylocaine is used to prevent or relieve pain, but it will not put you to sleep.

Xylocaine is also used after surgery to relieve pain. It can also be used to make childbirth less painful.

Xylocaine belongs to a group of medicines called local anaesthetics. It is injected into the body where it makes the nerves unable to pass messages to the brain.

Depending on the amount used, Xylocaine will either totally stop pain or will cause a partial loss of feeling.

Xylocaine is sometimes combined with adrenaline (epinephrine) to make it last longer. Adrenaline (epinephrine) makes the blood vessels at the site of injection narrower, which keeps the Xylocaine where it is needed for a longer time.

Your doctor will have explained why you are being treated with Xylocaine and told you what dose you will be given.

Follow all directions given to you by your doctor carefully.

They may differ from the information contained in this leaflet.

Your doctor may prescribe this medicine for another use. Ask your doctor if you want more information.

Xylocaine is not addictive.

Before you are given XYLOCAINE

When you must not use it

If you are pregnant or breastfeeding do not use Xylocaine unless your doctor says so. Ask your doctor about the risks and benefits of using this medicine while you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Xylocaine has been widely used during pregnancy and there have been no reports of any ill effects on the baby. It can be used during childbirth.

Your baby can take in very small amounts of Xylocaine from breast milk if you are breastfeeding, but it is unlikely that the amount available to the baby will do any harm.

Xylocaine will only be used if the solution is clear, the package is undamaged and the use by (expiry) date marked on the pack has not been passed.

Before you are given it

You must tell your doctor if:

  1. you have any allergies to
  • any ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet
  • other local anaesthetics eg. bupivacaine
  • other substances

If you have an allergic reaction, you may get a skin rash, hay fever or an asthma attack.

  1. you have any of these medical conditions
  • problems with your blood pressure or circulation
  • blood poisoning
  • problems with the clotting of your blood
  • nerve problems, e.g. epilepsy
  • heart, liver or kidney problems
  • thyroid problems
  • malignant hyperthermia
  • diabetes
  • skin infections

It may not be safe for you to take Xylocaine if you have any of these conditions.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, including

  • ones to control your heart beat
  • ones for blood pressure (anti-hypertensives)
  • ones for epilepsy or fits
  • ones for depression
  • cimetidine
  • any medicines that you buy at the chemist, supermarket or health food shop.

These medicines may affect the way Xylocaine works.

Your doctor or pharmacist can tell you what to do if you are taking any of these medicines.

If you have not told your doctor about any of these things, tell them before you are given any Xylocaine.

How XYLOCAINE is given

Xylocaine will be injected by your doctor into the skin, near a single nerve, or into an area which contains a large number of nerves.

This will result in an area of numbness at the site of injection, near the site of injection or in an area that may seem unrelated to the site of injection. The last will be the case if you are given an EPIDURAL injection (an injection around the spinal cord).

Xylocaine should not be injected directly into the blood.

The dosage you will be given will depend on your body size, age and the type of pain relief required. Your doctor will have had a lot of experience injecting Xylocaine or other local anaesthetics and will choose the best dose for you. They will be willing to discuss this decision with you.

Overdose

The doctor giving you Xylocaine will be experienced in the use of local anaesthetics, so it is unlikely that you will be given an overdose.

However, if you are particularly sensitive to Xylocaine, or the dose is accidentally injected directly into your blood, you may develop problems for a short time with your sight or hearing. You may get a numb feeling in or around the mouth, feel dizzy or stiff, or have twitchy muscles.

Whenever you are given Xylocaine, equipment will be available to care for you if an overdose happens.

While you are being given it

Things to be careful of

Be careful driving or operating machinery after you have been given Xylocaine.

You may be drowsy and your reflexes may be slow.

Do not drink alcohol while you are being given Xylocaine.

If you drink alcohol while you are being given Xylocaine your blood pressure may drop making you feel dizzy and faint.

Please talk to your doctor or pharmacist about these possibilities if you think they may bother you.

Side effects

Tell your doctor or nurse as soon as possible if you do not feel well while you are being given Xylocaine.

Xylocaine will help relieve pain in most people, but it may have unwanted side-effects. All medicines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time they are not. You may need medical treatment if you get some of the side effects.

Ask your doctor, nurse or pharmacist to answer any questions you may have.

Tell your doctor or nurse if you notice any of the following and they worry you:

  • tremors
  • nervousness
  • dizziness
  • blurred vision
  • drowsiness
  • ringing in the ears
  • numbness
  • feeling strange (disoriented)
  • nausea (feeling sick)
  • vomiting

These are all mild side effects of Xylocaine.

After an epidural injection you may develop a headache or backache which is not related to the medicine used. These can, on rare occasions, last for some months after the injection is given.

If Xylocaine is given wrongly, or you are very sensitive to it, it sometimes causes

  • fits
  • unconsciousness
  • breathing problems
  • low blood pressure
  • slow heart beat
  • collapse

If you are sensitive to sodium metabisulphite (found in adrenaline (epinephrine) containing preparations), it may cause life-threatening reactions or less severe asthmatic episodes.

These are all serious side effects. You may need urgent medical attention.

Some people may get other side effects while being given Xylocaine.

Tell your doctor if you notice anything else that is making you feel unwell.

After using it

Storage

Xylocaine will be stored by your doctor or pharmacist under the recommended conditions.

2mL and 5mL Polyamp presentations, Xylocaine with adrenaline in glass ampoules and single dose vials should be kept in a cool dry place where the temperature stays below 25 °C.

20mL Polyamp presentations, Xylocaine in glass ampoules should be kept in a cool dry place where the temperature stays below 30 °C.

Disposal

Any Xylocaine from a single dose preparations which is not used, will be disposed of in a safe manner by your doctor or pharmacist.

Product description

Xylocaine and Xylocaine with Adrenaline containing solutions are clear and colourless.

Each Xylocaine solution contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride as the active ingredient

plus

sodium chloride

sodium hydroxide +/- hydrochloric acid

water for Injections.

Each Xylocaine with Adrenaline solution contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride and adrenaline (epinephrine) (as acid tartrate) as the active ingredients

plus

sodium chloride

sodium hydroxide

sodium metabisulfite (E223)

Water for Injections.

The exceptions are Xylocaine 1% with Adrenaline 1:100,000 and Xylocaine 2% with Adrenaline 1:80,000 5mL ampoules which may also use hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment.

For a full list of Xylocaine products see next page.

What is in Xylocaine®

XYLOCAINE 0.5% with Adrenaline 1:200,000
Contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 5 mg/mL and adrenaline (epinephrine) 5 microgram/mL (as acid tartrate)

in 20 mL* single dose vials

AUST R 12008

XYLOCAINE 1%
contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 10 mg/mL

in

50 X 2 mL polyethylene ampoules Polyamp®

AUST R 12013

50 x 5 mL polyethylene ampoules Polyamp®

AUST R 48357

5 x 20 mL polyethylene ampoules Polyamp®

AUST R 48361

XYLOCAINE 1% with Adrenaline 1:100,000
contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 10 mg/mL and adrenaline (epinephrine) 10 microgram/mL as acid tartrate

in

10 x 5 mL* glass ampoules

AUST R 12017

XYLOCAINE 1% with Adrenaline 1:200,000
contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 10 mg/mL and adrenaline (epinephrine) 5 microgram/mL (as acid tartrate)

in

5 x 20 mL* single dose vials

AUST R 12015

XYLOCAINE 2%
contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 20 mg/mL

in

50 x 2 mL polyethylene ampoules Polyamp®

AUST R 12020

50 x 5mL polyethylene ampoules Polyamp®

AUST R 48362

5 x 20 mL polyethylene ampoules Polyamp®

AUST R 48364

XYLOCAINE 2% with Adrenaline 1:80,000
contains lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 20 mg/mL and adrenaline (epinephrine) 12.5 microgram/mL (as acid tartrate)

in

10 x 5 mL* glass ampoules

AUST R 54520

XYLOCAINE 2% with Adrenaline 1:200,000
contains lidocaine (lignocaine) 20 mg/mL and adrenaline (epinephrine) 5 microgram/mL (as acid tartrate)

in

5 x 20 mL* single dose vials

AUST R 12021

* contains sodium metabisulfite

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Xylocaine Ampoules (with Adrenaline 1:100,000) Solution for injection

Active ingredient

Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride; Adrenaline (epinephrine) acid tartrate

Schedule

S4

 

Name of the medicine

Xylocaine.

Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride.

Excipients.

Sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment and water for injections.

Xylocaine with adrenaline.

Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, adrenaline (epinephrine) acid tartrate.

Excipients.

Sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment, water for injections and sodium metabisulfite 0.5 mg/mL as antioxidant.

Description

Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride.

Chemical name: 2-diethylaminoaceto-2'6'-xylidide hydrochloride. MW: 234.3 (base). CAS: 6108-05-0 (monohydrate); 73-78-9.

Adrenaline (epinephrine).

Chemical name: (R)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylaminoethanol. CAS: 51-43-4.
The active ingredient in Xylocaine is lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride. Lidocaine is the new medicine ingredient name for lignocaine and is mostly used in this product information.
The active ingredient in Xylocaine with adrenaline is lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride and adrenaline (epinephrine) acid tartrate. Epinephrine is another medicine ingredient name for adrenaline but adrenaline is mostly used in this product information.
Lidocaine is classed as a membrane stabilising agent and is a local anaesthetic of the amide type. It is extremely stable and plain solutions can be sterilised by autoclaving, repeated a maximum of two times if necessary. Xylocaine solutions are available with or without adrenaline.
Plain aqueous solutions are sterile, isotonic and contain lidocaine hydrochloride, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment and water for injections. Lidocaine with adrenaline solutions are also sterile and isotonic, and in addition contain adrenaline acid tartrate and sodium metabisulfite. Xylocaine solutions contain no antimicrobial agent and should be used only once and any residue discarded.
Plain aqueous solutions of lidocaine hydrochloride have a pH of 5.0-7.0 (approx.); lidocaine with adrenaline solutions have a pH of 3.3-5.5 (approx.). Lidocaine base has a pKa of 7.85 (25°C), an oil/water coefficient of 2.9.

Pharmacology

Lidocaine, like other local anaesthetics, causes a reversible blockade of impulse propagation along nerve fibres by preventing the inward movement of sodium ions through the nerve membrane. Local anaesthetics of the amide type are thought to act within the sodium channels of the nerve membrane.
Local anaesthetic drugs may have similar effects on excitable membranes in the brain and myocardium. If excessive amounts of drug reach the systemic circulation rapidly, symptoms and signs of toxicity will appear, emanating mainly from the central nervous system and cardiovascular system.
CNS toxicity usually precedes the cardiovascular effects as it occurs at lower plasma concentrations. Direct effects of local anaesthetics on the heart include slow conduction, negative inotropism and eventually cardiac arrest.
Indirect cardiovascular effects, e.g. hypotension and bradycardia, may occur after epidural or spinal administration depending on the extent of the concomitant sympathetic block.
Adrenaline acts on both α-adrenergic and β-adrenergic receptors of tissue innervated by sympathetic nerves, except for the sweat glands and arteries of the face. It is the most important α-receptor activator. Adrenaline stimulates the heart to increase output; raises the systolic blood pressure; lowers diastolic blood pressure; relaxes bronchial spasm; and mobilises liver glycogen, resulting in hyperglycaemia and possibly glycosuria.

Pharmacokinetics.

Lidocaine has a rapid onset and a medium duration of action. The onset of action is one to five minutes following infiltration and 5 to 15 minutes following other types of administration.
The rate of absorption depends upon the dose, the route of administration and the vascularity of the injection site. Intercostal blocks give the highest peak plasma concentrations (approximately 1.5 microgram/mL for every 100 mg injected), while abdominal subcutaneous injections give the lowest (approximately 0.5 microgram/mL per 100 mg injected). Epidural and major nerve block produce peak plasma levels intermediate between these.
The addition of adrenaline considerably slows the absorption of lidocaine, although the rate also depends on the site of injection. Peak plasma concentrations are reduced by 50% following subcutaneous injection, by 30% following epidural injection and by 20% following intercostal block if adrenaline 5 microgram/mL is added.
Absorption of lidocaine from the epidural space occurs in two phases; the first phase is in the order of nine minutes and the second is approximately 82 minutes. The slow absorption is the rate limiting step in the elimination of lidocaine, which also explains why the apparent elimination half-life following epidural injection is longer than after intravenous administration.
The plasma binding of lidocaine is dependent on drug concentration, and the fraction bound decreases with increasing concentration. At concentrations of free base 1 to 4 microgram/mL, 60 to 80% of lidocaine is protein bound. Binding is also dependent on the plasma concentration of the α1-acid glycoprotein.
Lidocaine crosses the blood brain and placental barriers by passive diffusion. Since the degree of plasma protein binding in the fetus is less than that in the mother, although free lidocaine concentrations will be the same, the total plasma concentration will be greater in the mother.
Lidocaine has a total plasma clearance of 0.95 L/minute, a volume of distribution at steady state of 91 L, an elimination half-life of 1.6 hours and an estimated hepatic extraction ratio of 0.65. Approximately 90% of a parenteral dose of lidocaine is rapidly metabolised in the liver by de-ethylation to form monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX) followed by cleavage of the amide bond to form xylidine and 4-hydroxyxylidine, which are excreted in the urine. Less than 10% of a dose is excreted unchanged in the urine.
The principal metabolites, MEGX and GX, also possess pharmacological activity. The rate of metabolism of lidocaine appears to be limited by liver blood flow which may be reduced in patients after acute myocardial infarction and/or congestive heart failure. The rate of lidocaine metabolism may also be reduced in patients with liver or hepatic tissue necrosis, possibly because of altered perfusion.
The duration of action depends upon the concentration used, the dose given, the nerves to be blocked and the status of the patient. The 2% solution will produce an effect for 1.5 to 2 hours when given epidurally, and up to five hours when given as a peripheral nerve block. When used in a 1% concentration there is less effect on motor nerve fibres and the duration of effect is shorter.

Indications

Production of local or regional anaesthesia by the following techniques: infiltration;
intravenous regional anaesthesia, excluding solutions with adrenaline;
peripheral nerve block (e.g. intercostal block);
major plexus block (e.g. brachial plexus block);
epidural block and
subarachnoid block.

Contraindications

Allergy or hypersensitivity to amide type local anaesthetics or to any excipients. Allergy or hypersensitivity to sodium metabisulfite in solutions with adrenaline. Detection of suspected hypersensitivity by skin testing is of limited value.
Local anaesthetics are contraindicated for epidural and spinal anaesthesia in patients with uncorrected hypotension or coagulation disorders or in patients receiving anticoagulation treatment.
Local anaesthetic techniques must not be used when there is inflammation and/or sepsis in the region of the proposed injection and/or in the presence of septicaemia.
General contraindications related to epidural anaesthesia, regardless of the local anaesthetic used, should be taken into account.

The following are additional contraindications for solutions with adrenaline.

Conditions where the production or exacerbation of tachycardia may prove fatal, e.g. thyrotoxicosis or severe heart disease, or in obstetrics when maternal blood pressure exceeds 130/80 mmHg.
Local analgesia in parts of the body with compromised blood supply or supplied by end arteries, e.g. fingers, toes, nose, ears or penis. There is a possibility of producing arterial vasoconstriction and subsequent ischaemic gangrene distal to the site of injection.
Intravenous regional techniques.
Solutions with adrenaline should not be used in patients with a known sensitivity to sympathomimetic amines.
Solutions with adrenaline should not be used in most patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis.

Precautions

When any local anaesthetic agent is used, resuscitative equipment and drugs, including oxygen, should be immediately available in order to manage possible adverse reactions involving the cardiovascular, respiratory or central nervous systems. Because of the possibility of hypotension and bradycardia following major blocks, an intravenous (IV) cannula should be inserted before the local anaesthetic is injected. Delay in proper management of dose related toxicity, underventilation from any cause and/or altered sensitivity may lead to the development of acidosis, cardiac arrest and death.
Injection should always be made slowly with frequent aspirations to avoid inadvertent intravascular injection which can produce cerebral symptoms even at low doses.
Although intra-articular continuous infusions of local anaesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, there have been postmarketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of glenohumeral chondrolysis have been described in paediatric and adult patients following intra-articular continuous infusions of local anaesthetics with and without adrenaline for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement. Therefore, Xylocaine and Xylocaine with adrenaline should not be used for postoperative intra-articular continuous infusion.
Careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness should be accomplished after each local anaesthetic injection. It should be kept in mind that at such times restlessness, anxiety, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, depression or drowsiness may be early warning signs of CNS toxicity.
Low molecular weight heparins and heparinoids (spinal/ epidural haematomas). When neuraxial anaesthesia (epidural/ spinal anaesthesia) is employed, patients anticoagulated or scheduled to be anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins or heparinoids are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal haematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis. The risk of these events is increased by the use of indwelling epidural catheters, traumatic or repeated epidural/ spinal puncture, and the concomitant use of drugs affecting haemostasis, e.g. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors or other anticoagulants. Patients should be frequently monitored for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment.
The safety and effectiveness of Xylocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique and adequate precautions. Standard textbooks should be consulted regarding specific techniques and precautions for various regional anaesthetic procedures.
The lowest dosage that results in effective anaesthesia should be used (see Dosage and Administration). Repeated injection of Xylocaine may cause accumulation of lidocaine or its metabolites and result in toxic effects.
Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Elderly, young or debilitated patients, including those with advanced liver disease or severe renal dysfunction, should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical condition.
Lidocaine should be given with great caution to patients with epilepsy, impaired cardiac conduction, bradycardia, severe shock or digitalis intoxication. Lidocaine should also be administered with great caution to patients with impaired cardiovascular function as they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of atrioventricular conduction produced by these drugs. In patients with Stokes-Adams syndrome or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome extreme care should be taken to avoid accidental arteriovenous injection.
Central nerve blocks may cause cardiovascular depression, especially in the presence of hypovolaemia. Epidural anaesthesia should be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function. Epidural anaesthesia may lead to hypotension and bradycardia. Hypotension should be treated promptly with a sympathomimetic intravenously and repeated as necessary.
Local anaesthetics should be given with great caution (if at all) to patients with pre-existing abnormal neurological pathology, e.g. myasthenia gravis. Use with extreme caution in epidural, caudal and spinal anaesthesia when there are serious diseases of the central nervous system or spinal cord, e.g. meningitis, spinal fluid block, cranial or spinal haemorrhage, tumours, poliomyelitis, syphilis, tuberculosis or metastatic lesions of the spinal cord.
Since lidocaine is metabolised in the liver and excreted via the kidneys, the possibility of drug accumulation should be considered in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment (see Dosage and Administration).
Inadvertent intravascular or subarachnoid injection of small doses of local anaesthetics into the head and neck area, including retrobulbar, dental and stellate ganglion blocks, may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses.
Clinicians who perform retrobulbar blocks should be aware that there have been reports of cardiovascular collapse and apnoea following the use of local anaesthetic injections for retrobulbar block. Prior to retrobulbar block, necessary equipment, drugs and personnel should be immediately available, as with all other regional procedures. Retrobulbar injections may very occasionally reach the subarachnoid space, causing temporary blindness, cardiovascular collapse, apnoea, convulsions, etc. These must be diagnosed and treated promptly.
Retrobulbar and peribulbar injections of local anaesthetics carry a low risk of persistent ocular muscle dysfunction. The primary causes include trauma and/or local toxic effects on muscles or nerves. The severity of such tissue reactions is related to the degree of trauma, the concentration of the local anaesthetic and the duration of exposure of the tissue to the local anaesthetic. For this reason, as with all local anaesthetics, the lowest effective concentration and dose of local anaesthetic should be used. Vasoconstrictors may aggravate tissue reactions and should be used only when indicated.
Fetal bradycardia/ tachycardia frequently follows paracervical block and may be associated with fetal acidosis and hypoxia. Occasional cases of perinatal morbidity and mortality have been reported. When the recommended dose is exceeded the risk of fetal bradycardia increases. Careful monitoring of the fetal heart rate is necessary.
Lidocaine should be used with caution in patients with known drug sensitivities.
Patients being treated with antiarrhythmic drugs class III (e.g. amiodarone) should be under close surveillance and electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring since cardiac effects may be additive.
Solutions with adrenaline should be used with extreme caution in patients with severe or untreated hypertension, arteriosclerotic heart disease, cerebral vascular insufficiency, heart block, advanced diabetes, poorly controlled thyrotoxicosis or any other pathological conditions that might be aggravated by the effects of adrenaline. Adrenaline may induce anginal pain in patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease.
Solutions containing adrenaline should be used with caution in patients with ventricular fibrillation, prefibrillatory rhythm, tachycardia, myocardial infarction, phenothiazine induced circulatory collapse and prostatic hypertrophy. (See Contraindications, Adverse Effects and Interactions with other medicines.)
Solutions containing adrenaline also contain sodium metabisulfite which may cause allergic type reactions including anaphylactic type symptoms and life threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than nonasthmatic people.
Xylocaine Plain and Xylocaine with Adrenaline solutions for injection are probably porphyrinogenic and should only be prescribed to patients with acute porphyria on strong or urgent indications. Appropriate precautions should be taken for all porphyric patients.

Effects on ability to drive and operate machinery.

Depending on dosage, local anaesthetics may have a very mild effect on mental function and may temporarily impair locomotion and coordination.

Carcinogenicity/ mutagenicity/ impairment of fertility.

A two year oral toxicity study of 2,6-xylidine, a metabolite of lidocaine, has shown that in both male and female rats 2,6-xylidine in daily doses of 900 mg/m2 (150 mg/kg) resulted in carcinomas and adenomas of the nasal cavity. No nasal tumours were observed in the low dose (15 mg/kg) or control animals. In addition, the compound also caused subcutaneous fibromas and/or fibrosarcomas in male and female rats (significant at 150 mg/kg).
The genotoxic potential of 2,6-xylidine has been studied with mixed results. Positive results were reported in assays for gene mutations (weakly positive in the Ames test with metabolic activation and in the mouse lymphoma assay) and chromosomal damage (chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells at concentrations at which the drug precipitated from solution). No evidence of genotoxicity was found in in vivo assays for chromosomal damage (micronucleus assay) and DNA damage (unscheduled DNA synthesis). Covalent binding studies of DNA from liver and ethmoid turbinates in rats indicate that 2,6-xylidine may be genotoxic under certain conditions in vivo.

Use in pregnancy.

(Category A)
The safe use of lidocaine during pregnancy has not been established. Although lidocaine has been used extensively for surgical procedures during pregnancy with no reports of ill effects to the mother or fetus, there are no adequate or well controlled studies in pregnant women on the effect of lidocaine on the developing fetus.
Lidocaine has been effectively used for obstetric analgesia and adverse effects on the course of labour or delivery are rare. After epidural administration of lidocaine to women in labour, lidocaine crosses the placental barrier. However, concentrations in umbilical veins are lower than those found in the maternal circulation. It has been suggested that blood glucose levels should be checked in newborn infants after obstetric regional anaesthesia.
Adrenaline has been given to a large number of pregnant women and women of childbearing age without any proven increase in the frequency of malformations or other indirect harmful effects on the fetus having been observed.
The addition of adrenaline may potentially decrease uterine blood flow and contractility, especially after inadvertent injection into maternal blood vessels.
Adrenaline may delay the second stage of labour by inhibiting uterine contractions.
Adrenaline free solutions should be used during labour for paracervical or pudendal blocks.

Note.

Paracervical blocks may be associated with fetal bradycardia (see Precautions).

Use in lactation.

Lidocaine passes into breast milk. The amount of lidocaine appearing in breast milk from a breastfeeding mother receiving parenteral lidocaine is unlikely to lead to a significant accumulation of the parent drug in the breastfed infant. The remote possibility of an idiosyncratic or allergic reaction in the breastfed infant from lidocaine remains to be determined.

Interactions

Antiarrhythmic drugs.

Local anaesthetics of the amide type, e.g. lidocaine, should be used with caution in patients receiving other local anaesthetics or agents structurally related to amide type local anaesthetics, e.g. certain antiarrhythmic drugs such as disopyramide, procainamide, mexilitene, since potentiation of cardiac effects may occur. Specific interaction studies with lidocaine and antiarrhythmic drugs class III (e.g. amiodarone) have not been performed, but caution should be advised (see Precautions).

Amiodarone.

Amiodarone has been reported to reduce the clearance of lidocaine in two case reports, although a small prospective study of combined therapy on lidocaine pharmacokinetics found no change in clearance or other pharmacokinetic factors. This combination has been reported to precipitate seizures and lead to severe sinus bradycardia and a long sinoatrial arrest. Until more experience with concurrent use of lidocaine and amiodarone becomes available, patients receiving the combination should be monitored carefully.

Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists.

Propranolol and metoprolol reduce the metabolism of IV administered lidocaine and the possibility of this effect with other β-adrenergic blockers should be kept in mind. If these drugs are administered concurrently, the patient should be closely observed for signs of lidocaine toxicity.

Cimetidine.

Cimetidine reduces the clearance of IV administered lidocaine and toxic effects due to high serum lidocaine levels have been reported when these two drugs have been administered concurrently.

Anticonvulsive agents.

Phenytoin and other antiepileptic drugs, e.g. phenobarbitone, primidone and carbamazepine, appear to enhance the metabolism of lidocaine, but the significance of this effect is not known. Phenytoin and lidocaine have additive cardiac depressant effects.

Inhalational anaesthetics.

Lidocaine decreases the minimum effective concentration of inhalational anaesthetics, e.g. nitrous oxide.

Skeletal muscle relaxants.

Lidocaine and skeletal muscle relaxants, e.g. suxamethonium, lead to excessive neuromuscular blockade, therefore this combination must be used with caution.

Structurally related local anaesthetics.

Lidocaine should be used with caution in patients receiving agents structurally related to local anaesthetics.
In addition, the following interactions may occur with solutions with adrenaline.

CNS acting drugs.

Solutions containing adrenaline should be used with extreme caution in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants as severe sustained hypertension may result. The effects of adrenaline may be potentiated by some antihistamines and thyroid hormones (see Precautions). Phenothiazines and butyrophenones may reduce or reverse the pressor effects of adrenaline which may lead to a hypotensive response and tachycardia.

Oxytocic drugs of the ergot type.

Adrenaline containing solutions should not be used in the presence of oxytocic drugs of the ergot type, as they are known to interact to produce severe, persistent hypertension and its subsequent sequelae.

Adrenergic neuron blocking agents.

Solutions containing adrenaline should be used with extreme caution in the presence of adrenergic neuron blocking agents (e.g. guanethidine, debrisoquine, bethanidine).

Inhalational anaesthetics.

Serious cardiac arrhythmias and acute pulmonary oedema if hypoxia is present, may occur if preparations containing adrenaline are employed in patients during or following the administration of chloroform, halothane, cyclopropane, trichloroethylene or other halogenated compounds.

Cardiac glycosides.

Solutions containing adrenaline may interact with cardiac glycosides resulting in cardiac arrhythmias.

Beta-blockers.

Noncardioselective β-blockers, e.g. propranolol, enhance the pressor effects of adrenaline which may lead to severe hypertension and bradycardia.

Quinidine.

Solutions containing adrenaline may interact with quinidine, resulting in cardiac arrhythmias.

Hypoglycaemics.

Adrenaline induced hyperglycaemia may lead to loss of blood sugar control in diabetic patients treated with hypoglycaemic agents.

Alkaline solutions.

The solubility of lidocaine is limited at pH values above 7.0. This must be taken into consideration if adding an alkaline solution since precipitation might occur at higher pH values.

Laboratory test effects.

Creatinine.

Creatinine measurements in patients with therapeutic plasma levels of lidocaine are about 15 to 35% higher when measured by an enzymatic method versus the Jaffé method. This appears to be due to assay interference from N-ethylglycine, a metabolite of lidocaine.

Creatine kinase.

The intramuscular injection of lidocaine may result in an increase in creatine kinase levels for up to 48 hours. This may interfere with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

Adverse Effects

Adverse experiences following the administration of lidocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anaesthetic agents. These adverse experiences are, in general, dose related and may result from high plasma levels caused by excessive dosage or rapid absorption, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient.
Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature. The following types are those most commonly reported.

Central nervous system.

CNS manifestations are excitatory and/or depressant and may be characterised by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, hyperacusis, blurred vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and/or arrest, agitation, difficulty swallowing, paraesthesia circumoral, numbness of the tongue and slurred speech.
The excitatory manifestations may be very brief or may not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation of toxicity may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest. Drowsiness following administration of lidocaine is usually an early sign of a high blood level of the drug and may occur as a result of rapid absorption. In unconscious patients, circulatory collapse should be watched for as CNS effects may not be apparent as an early manifestation of toxicity, and may in some cases progress to frank convulsions, ultimately leading to respiratory depression and/or arrest. It is crucial to have resuscitative equipment and anticonvulsant drugs available to manage such patients (see Overdosage, Treatment of overdosage).

Cardiovascular.

Cardiovascular manifestations are usually depressant and are characterised by bradycardia, hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest.
Cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension have also been observed.
Methaemoglobinaemia can occur following IV administration.
Cardiovascular toxic effects are generally preceded by signs of toxicity in the central nervous system, unless the patient is receiving a general anaesthetic or is heavily sedated with drugs, e.g. a benzodiazepine or a barbiturate. In rare cases, cardiac arrest has occurred without prodromal CNS effects.
In children, early signs of local anaesthetic toxicity may be difficult to detect in cases where the block is given during general anaesthesia.

Haemodynamic.

Regional anaesthesia may lead to maternal hypotension.

Allergic.

Allergic reactions are characterised by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, oedema or anaphylactoid reactions/ shock.
Allergy to amide type local anaesthetics is rare. Sodium metabisulfite (a sulfite), which is included in solutions containing adrenaline, may also cause allergic type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people. If such a reaction occurs, it should be managed by conventional means.
The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value.

Neurologic.

The incidences of adverse reactions associated with the use of local anaesthetics may be related to the total dose of local anaesthetic administered and are also dependent on the particular drug used, the route of administration and the physical status of the patient.
Neurological reactions following regional nerve blocks have included persistent numbness, paraesthesia and other sensory disturbances.
In a prospective review of 10,440 patients who received lidocaine for spinal anaesthesia, the incidences were reported to be about 3% each for positional headaches, hypotension and backache; 2% for shivering; and less than 1% each for peripheral nerve symptoms, nausea, respiratory inadequacy and double vision. Many of these observations may be related to local anaesthetic techniques, with or without a contribution from the local anaesthetic.
In the practice of caudal or lumbar epidural block, occasional unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space by the catheter may occur. Subsequent adverse effects may depend partially on the amount of drug administered subdurally.
These may include spinal block of varying magnitude (including total spinal block), hypotension secondary to spinal block, loss of bladder and bowel control and loss of perineal sensation and sexual function. Persistent motor, sensory and/or autonomic (sphincter control) deficit of some lower spinal segments with slow recovery (several months) or incomplete recovery have been reported in rare instances when caudal or lumbar epidural block has been attempted. Backache and headache have also been noted following use of these anaesthetic procedures.
Peripheral nerve injury and arachnoiditis have been observed.

Dosage and Administration

The lowest dosage and volume that results in effective anaesthesia should be used and should be based on the status of the patient and the type of regional anaesthesia intended. Xylocaine solutions contain no antimicrobial agent and should be used once only and any residue discarded.
Lidocaine should be administered with great caution to patients with impaired cardiovascular function as they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of atrioventricular conduction produced by these drugs.

Adults.

Table 1 shows adult dosage recommendations.

Note.

Recommended doses.

The suggested concentrations and volumes shown in Table 1 serve only as a guide. Toxic doses vary widely between patients and toxic effects may occur after any local anaesthetic procedure.
Careful observation of the patient must, therefore, be maintained. It is recommended that the dose of lidocaine at any one time should not exceed 3 mg/kg (plain solutions) or 7 mg/kg (solutions containing adrenaline). However, the dose administered must be tailored to the individual patient and procedure, and the maximum doses here quoted should be used as a guide only.

Hypotension.

During thoracic, lumbar and caudal epidural anaesthesia, a marked fall in blood pressure and/or intercostal paralysis may be seen, possibly due to the use of excessive doses, improper positioning of the patient or accidental disposition of the anaesthetic within the subarachnoid space. Hypotension and bradycardia may occur as a result of sympathetic blockade.

Test dose.

For epidural anaesthesia, a 3 to 5 mL test dose of a local anaesthetic solution preferably containing up to adrenaline 15 microgram (e.g. Xylocaine 2% with adrenaline 1:200,000 3 mL) should be administered.
Verbal contact and repeated monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure should be maintained for five minutes following the test dose after which, in the absence of signs of subarachnoid or intravascular injection, the main dose may be administered.
Use of a test dose containing adrenaline may have further advantages in that an intravascular injection of adrenaline will be quickly recognised by an increase in heart rate, usually within about 40 seconds. To detect this, the heart rate and rhythm should be monitored with an electrocardiogram.
Prior to administration of the total dose, aspiration should be repeated. The main dose should be injected slowly, with continual assessment of the patient. If toxic symptoms or signs occur, the injection should be stopped immediately.

Use in children.

For children, a reduced dosage based on bodyweight or surface area should be used. The dosage should be calculated for each patient individually and modified in accordance with the doctor's experience and knowledge of the patient.
In order to minimise the possibility of toxic effects, the use of Xylocaine 0.5 or 1% solutions is recommended for most anaesthetic procedures involving paediatric patients.
In children, early signs of local anaesthetic toxicity may be difficult to detect in cases where the block is given during general anaesthesia.

Use in elderly.

A reduction in dosage may be necessary for elderly patients, especially those with compromised cardiovascular and/or hepatic function.
In epidural anaesthesia, a smaller dose may provide adequate anaesthesia.

With impaired hepatic function.

Although lidocaine is metabolised by the liver, dosage reduction for local anaesthesia is probably not warranted. However, caution should be exercised with repeated doses.

With impaired renal function.

Impairment of renal function is unlikely to affect lidocaine clearance in the short term (24 hours). However, toxicity due to accumulation may develop with prolonged or repeated administration.

Overdosage

Symptoms.

Acute emergencies associated with the use of local anaesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels or to unintended subarachnoid injection of the local anaesthetic solution (see Adverse Effects and Precautions).
With accidental intravascular injections, the toxic effect will be obvious within one to three minutes. With overdosage, peak plasma concentrations may not be reached for 20 to 30 minutes depending on the site of injection, and toxic signs will be delayed. Toxic reactions mainly involve the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.
In children, early signs of local anaesthetic toxicity may be difficult to detect in cases where the block is given during general anaesthesia.

Symptoms of acute toxicity.

CNS toxicity is a graded response with symptoms and signs of escalating severity. The first symptoms are circumoral paraesthesia, numbness of the tongue, lightheadedness, hyperacusis and tinnitus. Visual disturbance and muscular tremors are more serious and precede the onset of generalised convulsions. These signs must not be mistaken for neurotic behaviour.
Unconsciousness and grand mal convulsions may follow. These may last from a few seconds to several minutes. Hypoxia and hypercarbia occur rapidly following convulsions due to the increased muscular activity, together with the interference with normal respiration and loss of the airway. In severe cases, apnoea may occur. Acidosis increases the toxic effects of local anaesthetics.
Recovery is due to redistribution of the local anaesthetic drug from the central nervous system and metabolism. Recovery may be rapid unless large amounts of the drug have been injected.

Cardiovascular toxicity.

Cardiovascular toxicity indicates a more severe situation. Hypotension, bradycardia, decreased cardiac output, heart block, arrhythmia and even ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest may occur as a result of huge systemic concentrations of local anaesthetics.
Cardiovascular toxic effects are generally preceded by signs of toxicity in the central nervous system, unless the patient is receiving a general anaesthetic or is heavily sedated with drugs, e.g. a benzodiazepine or a barbiturate. In rare cases, cardiac arrest has occurred without prodromal CNS effects.

Treatment of overdosage.

If signs of acute systemic toxicity appear, injection of the local anaesthetic should be stopped immediately. If convulsions occur, immediate attention is required for the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen via a positive airway pressure delivery system mask. Adequacy of the circulation should then be evaluated, bearing in mind that drugs used to treat convulsions depress the circulation when administered intravenously.
Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, and if the status of the circulation permits, appropriate anticonvulsant medication, e.g. an ultrashort acting barbiturate (e.g. thiopentone) or a benzodiazepine (e.g. diazepam), may be administered IV. The clinician should be familiar with these anticonvulsant drugs prior to use of local anaesthetics.
Suxamethonium will stop the muscle convulsions rapidly but will require tracheal intubation and controlled ventilation, and should only be used by those familiar with these procedures.
If ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest occurs, effective cardiovascular resuscitation treatment must be instituted and maintained for a prolonged period if necessary. Optimal oxygenation and ventilation, and circulatory support as well as treatment of acidosis are of vital importance.
If cardiovascular depression occurs (hypotension, bradycardia), appropriate treatment with intravenous fluids, vasopressor, chronotropic and/or inotropic agents should be considered. Children should be given doses commensurate with age and weight.
Dialysis is of negligible value in the treatment of acute overdosage with lidocaine.
To counteract the pressor effects of adrenaline, use rapidly acting vasodilators, for instance nitrates or α-blocking agents.
For treatment of reactions caused by adrenaline, consult standard textbooks.

Presentation

Xylocaine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:200,000.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 5 mg/mL with adrenaline (epinephrine) 5 microgram/mL (as acid tartrate)].
20 mL single dose vials in Sterile AstraZeneca Theatre Pack.

Xylocaine 1.0%.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 10 mg/mL] 5 mL glass ampoules^.
2 mL, 5 mL, 20 mL Polyamp ampoules.

Xylocaine 1.0% with adrenaline 1:100,000.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 10 mg/mL with adrenaline (epinephrine) 10 microgram/mL (as acid tartrate)].
5 mL glass ampoules.

Xylocaine 1.0% with adrenaline 1:200,000.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 10 mg/mL with adrenaline (epinephrine) 5 microgram/mL (as acid tartrate)].
20 mL single dose vials in Sterile AstraZeneca Theatre Pack.

Xylocaine 1.5% with adrenaline 1:200,000.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 15 mg/mL with adrenaline (epinephrine) 5 microgram/mL(as acid tartrate)].
20 mL single dose Top Hat vials^.

Xylocaine 2.0%.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 20 mg/mL] 5 mL glass ampoules^.
2 mL, 5 mL, 20 mL Polyamp ampoules.

Xylocaine 2.0% with adrenaline 1:80,000.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 20 mg/mL with adrenaline (epinephrine) 12.5 micrograms/mL)].
5 mL glass ampoules.

Xylocaine 2.0% with adrenaline 1:200,000.

[Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride 20 mg/mL with adrenaline (epinephrine) 5 micrograms/mL (as acid tartrate)].
20 mL single dose vials in Sterile AstraZeneca Theatre Pack.
^ Registered but not marketed.

Note.

Solutions with adrenaline contain the antioxidant sodium metabisulfite, 0.5 mg/mL.

Storage

2 and 5 mL Polyamp presentations. Store below 25°C.
20 mL Polyamp presentations. Store below 30°C.
Xylocaine with adrenaline in glass ampoules. Store below 25°C.
Xylocaine solutions in glass ampoules. Store below 30°C.
Xylocaine with adrenaline in single dose vials. Store below 25°C.
Solutions with adrenaline should be protected from light.
Local anaesthetics react with certain metals and cause the release of their respective ions which, if injected, may cause severe local irritation. Adequate precautions should be taken to avoid prolonged contact between Xylocaine solutions and metal surfaces, e.g. metal bowls, cannulae and syringes with metal parts.
Solutions showing discolouration and unused portions of solutions from ampoules and single dose vials should be discarded. Solutions with adrenaline should not be reautoclaved. Surface sterilisation using pure, undiluted isopropyl alcohol (91%) or ethyl alcohol 70% (USP) may be carried out if desired.

Poison Schedule

S4.