Consumer medicine information

Fycompa

Perampanel

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Fycompa

Active ingredient

Perampanel

Schedule

S4

 

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet

Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Fycompa.

WHAT IS IN THIS LEAFLET

This leaflet answers some common questions about Fycompa.

It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to the doctor or pharmacist.

All medicines have risks and benefits. The doctor has weighed the risks of you or your child taking this medicine against the benefits they expect it will have for you or your child.

If you or your child have any concerns about taking this medicine, ask the doctor or pharmacist.

Keep this leaflet with the medicine. You may need to read it again.

WHAT FYCOMPA IS USED FOR

Fycompa is used to treat certain forms of epilepsy. In adults, adolescents and children aged 4 years and older.

  • It is used to treat fits that affect one part of the brain (called a “partial seizure”). These partial seizures may or may not then be followed by a fit affecting all of the brain (called a “secondary generalisation”).

In adults, adolescents and children aged 7 years and older:

  • It is also used to treat certain fits that affect all of the brain from the start and cause convulsions (called “primary generalised tonic-clonc seizures).

It contains the active ingredient perampanel. Perampanel belongs to a group of medicines called anti epileptics.

It works by reducing the number of fits that you or your children have.

Ask the doctor if you or your child have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you or your child. The doctor may have prescribed it for another reason.

This medicine is available only with a doctor’s prescription.

Fycompa has some potential for abuse and misuse and should be used with caution in patients with a history of drug abuse.

There is not enough information to know whether Fycompa would be addictive if abused.

Fycompa should be used with caution in patients aged 65 years or older due to the high rates of dizziness and falls in those patients.

Fycompa should be used with caution in patients with a history of severe mental conditions or aggression.

There is not enough information to recommend the use of this medicine for children under the age of 4 years of age for partial seizures and under 7 years of age in primary generalised tonic clonic seizures.

BEFORE YOU OR YOUR CHILD TAKE FYCOMPA

When you or your child must not take it

Do not take this medicine if you or your child have an allergy to:

  • Perampanel, the active ingredient, or to any of the other ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet under Product Description

Fycompa film coated tablets contain lactose. If you have been told by the doctor that you or your child have intolerance to some sugars, tell the doctor before taking it.

Fycompa oral suspension contains sorbitol and benzoates. If you have been told by the doctor that you or your child have intolerance to these, tell the doctor before taking it.

Some of the symptoms of an allergic reaction may include:

  • shortness of breath
  • wheezing or difficulty breathing
  • swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body
  • rash, itching or hives on the skin

Do not give this medicine to a child under the age of 4 years. The safety and effectiveness are not yet known in children under 4 years of age for partial seizures and under 7 years of age in primary generalised tonic clonic seizures.

Do not take this medicine after the expiry date printed on the pack or if the packaging is torn or shows signs of tampering. If it has expired or is damaged, return it to a pharmacy for disposal.

If you or your child are not sure whether to start taking this medicine, talk to the doctor.

Before you or your child start to take it

Tell the doctor if you or your child has allergies to any other medicines, foods, preservatives or dyes.

Tell the doctor if you or your child has or have had any of the following medical conditions:

  • liver problems
  • moderate or severe kidney problems
  • history of alcoholism, drug dependence or other psychiatric illness

Tell the doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant or are breastfeeding. Fycompa is not recommended in pregnancy.

You must use a reliable method of contraception to avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with Fycompa.

You should continue doing this for one month after stopping treatment.

Tell the doctor if you are taking hormonal contraceptives. Fycompa may make certain hormonal contraceptives such as levonorgestrel less effective.

You should use other forms of safe and effective contraception (such as a condom or coil) when taking Fycompa. You should also do this for one month after stopping treatment. Discuss with the doctor what may be appropriate contraception for you.

It is not known whether the ingredients of Fycompa can pass into breast milk.

The doctor will weigh up the benefit and risks to you or your baby of taking Fycompa while you are breastfeeding.

If you or your child have not told the doctor about any of the above, tell him/her before you or your child start taking Fycompa.

Taking other medicines

Tell the doctor or pharmacist if you or your child are taking any other medicines, including any that you or your child get without a prescription from the pharmacy, supermarket or health food shop.

Some medicines and Fycompa may interfere with each other. These include:

  • Carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine
  • Rifampicin,
  • Hypericum (St. John’s wort),
  • Felbamate
  • Ketoconazole
  • Oral contraceptives

These medicines may be affected by Fycompa or may affect how well it works. You or your child may need different amounts of medicines, or may need to take different medicines.

The doctor and pharmacist have more information on medicines to be careful with or avoid while taking this medicine.

HOW TO TAKE FYCOMPA

Follow all directions given to you or your child by the doctor or pharmacist carefully. They may differ from the information contained in this leaflet.

If you or your child do not understand the instructions, ask the doctor or pharmacist for help.

How much to take

In adults and adolescents, the usual starting dose for this medicine is 2 mg (4 mL of oral suspension) once a day before you go to bed.

The doctor may increase the dose in 2 mg steps (4 mL of oral suspension) to a maintenance dose between 4 and 12 mg depending on you or your child’s response.

The doctor may have prescribed a different dose.

In children less than 12 years old, the starting dose for this medicine will be based on you or your childs age and weight. The usual starting dose is 1 or 2 mg (2 mL or 4 mL of oral suspension) once a day before going to bed.

The doctor may increase the dose in 1 mg or 2 mg steps (2 mL or 4 mL of oral suspension) to a maintenance dose between 2 and 12 mg depending on the response.

In adults and adoelscents with mild or moderate liver problems, dosing can be started a the normal starting dose and the dose increases should be at least 2 weeks apart. Dosing should not exceed the maintenance dose.

In children less than 12 years old with mild or moderate liver problems, there are no dosing recommendations.

The doctor may have prescribed a different dose.

Ask the doctor or pharmacist if you or your child are unsure of the correct dose. They will tell you or your child exactly how much to take.

Follow the instructions they give you or your child. If you or your child take the wrong dose, Fycompa may not work as well and the problem may not improve.

How to take it

You or your child can take Fycompa with or without food and should always take it the same way. For example, if you or your child decide to take Fycompa with food, always take it that way.

Film coated tablets

Swallow the tablets whole with a full glass of water. You or your child can take Fycompa tablets with or without food.

Do not chew, crush or split the tablet. The tablets cannot be split accurately as there is no break line. To ensure you or your child get the entire dose, the tablets should be swallowed whole without chewing or crushing.

Oral suspension

Instructions on how to use the oral syringe and adaptor are provided below:

  1. Shake the oral suspension for at least 5 seconds before every administration.

  1. Push down and turn cap to open bottle.

  1. Insert adaptor into the neck of the bottle until a tight seal is made.

  1. Push plunger of oral syringe completely down.
  2. Insert the oral syringe into the opening of the adaptor as far as possible.

  1. Turn upside down and withdraw the prescribed amount of Fycompa from the bottle.

  1. Turn upright and remove the oral syringe.
  2. Leave the adaptor in place and replace cap on bottle. Wash the oral syringe with clean water and dry thoroughly.

When to take Fycompa

Take the medicine at about the same time each day before going to bed. Taking it at the same time each day will have the best effect. It will also help you or your child remember when to take it.

How long to take Fycompa

Continue taking the medicine for as long as the doctor tells you or your child.

Do not stop unless the doctor advises you or your child to.

The doctor may reduce the dose slowly to avoid fits (seizures) coming back or getting worse.

If you or your child have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask the doctor or pharmacist.

If you or your child forget to take it

Wait until the next dose, and then continue to take it as you or your child would normally.

Do not take a double dose to make up for the missed dose. This may increase the chance of you or your child getting an unwanted side effect.

If you or your child have missed less than 7 days of treatment with Fycompa, continue taking the daily dose as originally instructed by the doctor.

If you or your child have missed more than 7 days of treatment with Fycompa, talk to the doctor immediately.

If you or your child are not sure what to do, ask the doctor or pharmacist.

If you or your child have trouble remembering to take the medicine, ask the pharmacist for some hints.

If you or your child take too much (overdose)

Immediately telephone the doctor or the Poisons Information Centre (telephone Australia 13 11 26 for advice, or go to Accident and Emergency at the nearest hospital, if you or your child think that you or your child or anyone else may have taken too much Fycompa. Do this even if there are no signs of discomfort or poisoning. You or your child may need urgent medical attention.

WHILE YOU OR YOUR CHILD ARE TAKING FYCOMPA

Things you or your child must do

If you or your child are about to be started on any new medicine, remind the doctor and pharmacist that you or your child are taking Fycompa.

Tell any other doctors, dentists and pharmacists who treat you or your child that you or your child are taking Fycompa.

If you or your child are going to have surgery, tell the surgeon or anaesthetist that you or your child are taking Fycompa. It may affect other medicines used during surgery.

If you or your child become pregnant while taking Fycompa, tell the doctor immediately. Do not stop treatment without first discussing it with the doctor.

If you or your child are about to have any blood tests, tell the doctor that you or your child are taking Fycompa. It may interfere with the results of some tests.

Keep all of the doctor’s appointments so that you or your child’s progress can be checked.

Things you or your child must not do

Do not take Fycompa to treat any other complaints unless the doctor tells you or your child to.

Do not give you or your child’s medicine to anyone else, even if they have the same condition as you or your child.

Do not stop taking the medicine or lower the dosage without checking with the doctor.

Things to be careful of

Serious or life-threatening psychiatric and behavioural adverse reactions including aggression, hostility, irritability, anger, suicidal ideation and homicidal ideation and threats have been reported in patients taking Fycompa.

Patients and caregivers should contact a healthcare provider immediately if any of these reactions or changes in mood, behaviour, or personality that are not typical for the patient are seen while they are taking Fycompa or after stopping Fycompa.

If changes in behaviour or personality are seen notify the doctor immediately. They may reduce the dose of Fycompa or stop treatment with Fycompa.

Patients starting Fycompa should be carefully observed especially when starting treatment and if the dose is increased.

Do not drive or operating machinery until you know how Fycompa affects you or your child.

You must talk to the doctor about the effect of you or your child’s epilepsy on driving and using machines.

Fycompa may make you or your child feel dizzy or sleepy, particularly at the beginning of treatment. If this happens to you or your child, do not drive or use any tools or machines.

Fycompa may make you or your child more likely to fall over, particularly if you are an older person; this might be due to you or your child’s illness.

Avoid alcohol while taking Fycompa as it may make these effects worse.

SIDE EFFECTS

Tell the doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible if you or your child do not feel well while you or your child are taking Fycompa

All medicines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time they are not. You or your child may need medical attention if you or your child get some of the side effects.

Do not be alarmed by the following lists of side effects. You or your child may not experience any of them.

A small number of people being treated with antiepileptics have had thoughts of harming or killing themselves. If at any time you or your child have these thoughts, contact the doctor or go to accident & emergency straight away.

If you or your child get a skin rash, or fever, and/or enlarged lymph nodes, these could be signs of an allergic reaction. See the doctor immediately as very occasionally this may become serious.

Very common (may affect more than 1 user in 10) side effects are:

  • feeling dizzy
  • feeling sleepy (drowsiness or somnolence).

Common (may affect more than 1 user in 100) side effects are:

  • increased or decreased appetite, weight gain
  • feeling aggressive, angry, irritable, anxious or confused
  • difficulty with walking or other balance problems (ataxia, gait disturbance, balance disorder)
  • slow speech (dysarthria)
  • blurred vision or double vision (diplopia)
  • spinning sensation (vertigo)
  • feeling sick (nausea)
  • back pain
  • feeling very tired (fatigue)
  • falling down.

Not known (the frequency of this side effect cannot be estimated from the available data) are:

  • thoughts about harming yourself or your child having thoughts about harming themselves;thoughts about ending your own life or your child having thoughts about ending their own life (suicidal thoughts), tried to end your own life or your child tried to end their own life (attempted suicide)
  • skin rash
  • fever
  • enlarged lymph nodes

Children are more likely than adults and adolescents to feel sleepy, or feel aggressive, angry, irritable, anxious or confused.

If you or your child get any side effects, talk to the doctor or pharmacist.

This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.

Ask the doctor or pharmacist to answer any questions you or your child may have.

Tell the doctor or pharmacist if you or your child notice anything else that is making you or your child feel unwell. Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some people.

AFTER TAKING FYCOMPA

Storage

Keep the medicine in the original container.

If you or your child take it out of its original container it may not keep well.

Keep the medicine in a cool dry place where the temperature stays below 30°C. Do not freeze the oral suspension. If there is any suspension left in the bottle more than 90 days after it was first opened, it should not be used.

Do not store Fycompa or any other medicine in the bathroom or near a sink. Do not leave it on a window sill or in the car. Heat and dampness can destroy some medicines.

Keep it where children cannot reach it. A locked cupboard at least one-and-a-half metres above the ground is a good place to store medicines.

Disposal

If the doctor tells you or your child to stop taking this medicine or the expiry date has passed, ask the pharmacist what to do with any medicine that is left over.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

What it looks like

Film coated tablets

Fycompa 2 mg film coated tablet is an orange, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, engraved with E275 on one side and 2 on other side. Available in packs of 7.

Fycompa 4 mg film coated tablet is a red, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, engraved with E277 on one side and 4 on other side. Available in packs of 28.

Fycompa 6 mg film coated tablet is a pink, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, engraved with E294 on one side and 6 on other side. Available in packs of 28.

Fycompa 8 mg film coated tablet is a purple, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, engraved with E295 on one side and 8 on other side. Available in packs of 28.

Fycompa 10 mg film coated tablet is a green, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, engraved with E296 on one side and 10 on other side. Available in packs of 28.

Fycompa 12 mg film coated tablet is a blue, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, engraved with E297 on one side and 12 on other side. Available in packs of 28.

Oral suspension

FYCOMPA oral suspension appears as a white to off white suspension. Available in packs of 1 bottle containing 340 mL oral suspension.

Ingredients

Film coated tablets

Active ingredient:

  • Perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate)

Excipient Ingredients:

  • lactose,
  • hypromellose,
  • povidone,
  • purified talc,
  • magnesium stearate,
  • microcrystalline cellulose (6 mg, 8 mg, 10 mg and 12 mg only)
  • macrogol 8000,
  • titanium dioxide,
  • iron oxide yellow (2 mg, 10 mg),
  • iron oxide red (2mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, and 8 mg only),
  • iron oxide black (8 mg only) and
  • Indigo carmine aluminium lake (10 mg & 12 mg only).

This medicine does not contain gluten, tartrazine or any other azo dyes.

Oral suspension

Active ingredient:

  • Perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate)

Excipient Ingredients:

  • sorbitol solution (70%) (crystallising),
  • Avicel RC – 591 (PING: 4093)
  • poloxamer,
  • Antifoam AF Emulsion Q7 - 2587 (PING: 1515)
  • citric acid,
  • sodium benzoate,
  • purified water

This medicine does not contain gluten, tartrazine or any other azo dyes.

SPONSOR

Eisai Australia Pty. Ltd.
Level 2, 437 St Kilda Road
Melbourne, VIC, 3004
[email protected]

This leaflet was prepared February 2021.

Australian Register Number(s)

Fycompa 2 mg film coated tablet: AUST R 207690

Fycompa 4 mg film coated tablet: AUST R 207689

Fycompa 6 mg film coated tablet: AUST R 207688

Fycompa 8 mg film coated tablet: AUST R 207687

Fycompa 10 mg film coated tablet: AUST R 207692

Fycompa 12 mg film coated tablet: AUST R 207691

Fycompa 4 mg/2mL oral suspension: AUST R 332505

Published by MIMS April 2021

BRAND INFORMATION

Brand name

Fycompa

Active ingredient

Perampanel

Schedule

S4

 

1 Name of Medicine

Perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

2 Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Film-coated tablets.

Fycompa 2 mg film-coated tablets.

Each 2 mg Fycompa film-coated tablet contains 2 mg of perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

Excipient with known effect.

Each 2 mg tablet contains 78.5 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Fycompa 4 mg film-coated tablets.

Each 4 mg Fycompa film-coated tablet contains 4 mg of perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

Excipient with known effect.

Each 4 mg tablet contains 157 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Fycompa 6 mg film-coated tablets.

Each 6 mg Fycompa film-coated tablet contains 6 mg of perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

Excipient with known effect.

Each 6 mg tablet contains 151 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Fycompa 8 mg film-coated tablets.

Each 8 mg Fycompa film-coated tablet contains 8 mg of perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

Excipient with known effect.

Each 8 mg tablet contains 149 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Fycompa 10 mg film-coated tablets.

Each 10 mg Fycompa film-coated tablet contains 10 mg of perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

Excipient with known effect.

Each 10 mg tablet contains 147 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Fycompa 12 mg film-coated tablets.

Each 12 mg Fycompa film-coated tablet contains 12 mg of perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

Excipient with known effect.

Each 12 mg tablet contains 145 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

All film-coated tablets.

Excipients with known effect.

Sugars (as lactose).
For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.

Oral suspension.

Each bottle of 340 mL oral suspension contains 170 mg perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).
Each 4 mL of oral suspension contains 2 mg perampanel (as hemisesquihydrate).

Excipient with known effect.

Each 4 mL of oral suspension contains: 1000 mg sorbitol solution (70%) (crystallising), 4.40 mg sodium benzoate.
For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 List of Excipients.

3 Pharmaceutical Form

Film coated tablet.

Fycompa 2 mg film-coated tablets are orange, round, biconvex tablets, engraved with E275 on one side and '2' on other side.
Fycompa 4 mg film-coated tablets are red, round, biconvex tablets, engraved with E277 on one side and '4' on other side.
Fycompa 6 mg film-coated tablets are pink, round, biconvex tablets, engraved with E294 on one side and '6' on other side.
Fycompa 8 mg film-coated tablets are purple, round, biconvex tablets, engraved with E295 on one side and '8' on other side.
Fycompa 10 mg film-coated tablets are green, round, biconvex tablets, engraved with E296 on one side and '10' on other side.
Fycompa 12 mg film-coated tablets are blue, round, biconvex tablets, engraved with E297 on one side and '12' on other side.

Oral suspension.

Fycompa oral suspension appears as a white to off-white suspension.

4 Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Fycompa is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of:
Partial onset seizures (POS) with or without secondarily generalised seizures in patients from 4 years of age with epilepsy.
Primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in patients from 7 years of age with idiopathic generalised epilepsy.

4.2 Dose and Method of Administration

Fycompa must be titrated, according to individual patient response, in order to optimise the balance between efficacy and tolerability. Fycompa should be taken orally once daily at bedtime.
The physician should prescribe the most appropriate formulation and strength according to weight and dose. Alternate formulations of perampanel are available, including oral suspension.

Dose and titration for all patients.

Table 1 summarises the recommended posology for patients with partial-onset seizures from 4 years of age and patients with primary generalised tonic clonic seizures from 7 years of age.
Treatment with Fycompa should be initiated with the lowest dose specified in Table 1 for the patient's age and weight. The dose may be increased based on clinical response and tolerability by increments according to age and weight as specified in Table 1 (no more frequently than either weekly or every 2-4 weeks as per half-life considerations described below) to a maintenance dose according to age and weight as specified in Table 1. Real world experience suggests that slower titration may lead to improved tolerability. Depending upon individual clinical response and tolerability at the recommended maintenance dose, the dose may be increased by increments no more frequently than either weekly or every 2-4 weeks according to age and weight as specified in Table 1 to the recommended maximum dose specified in Table 1, which may be effective in some patients (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use). It is recommended that Fycompa is maintained at the lowest dose that controls symptoms in order to reduce potential adverse events.
Concomitant medicines, such as moderate and strong CYP3A4 inducers, including enzymeinducing AEDs such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine, may impact the halflife of perampanel (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions).
Patients who are taking concomitant medicinal products that do not shorten the half-life of perampanel should be titrated no more frequently than every 2-4 weeks. Patients who are taking concomitant medicinal products that shorten the half-life of perampanel (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions) should be titrated no more frequently than at weekly intervals.

Treatment withdrawal and missed doses.

When withdrawing Fycompa, the dose should be gradually reduced (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).
Single missed dose: As perampanel has a long half-life, the patient should wait and take their next dose as scheduled.
If more than 1 dose has been missed, for a continuous period of less than 5 half-lives (3 weeks for patients not taking perampanel metabolism-inducing AEDs, 1 week for patients taking perampanel metabolism-inducing AEDs (see Section 4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions), consideration should be given to restart treatment from the last dose level.
If a patient has discontinued perampanel for a continuous period of more than 5 half-lives, it is recommended that initial dosing recommendations given above should be followed.

Special populations.

Renal impairment.

Dose adjustment is not required in patients with mild renal impairment. Use in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment or patients undergoing haemodialysis is not recommended.

Patients with hepatic impairment.

Dose increases in adult and adolescent patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment should be based on clinical response and tolerability.
For adult and adolescent patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, dosing can be initiated at the starting dose specified in Table 1. Patients should be up-titrated slowly and no faster than every 2 weeks based on tolerability and effectiveness. Fycompa dosing for patients with mild and moderate impairment should not exceed the maintenance dose specified in Table 1.
No data is available in children < 12 years with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No dosing recommendation can be made for these children.
Use in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended.

Elderly patients.

Fycompa should be used with caution in the elderly (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).

Paediatric patients.

There is limited long term safety data in children below 12 years of age. The safety and efficacy of Fycompa in children below 4 years of age with POS and 7 years of age with PGTCS have not been established yet.

Method of administration.

Fycompa should be taken as single oral dose at bedtime. It may be taken with or without food (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties). The film-coated tablet should be swallowed whole with a glass of water. It should not be chewed, crushed or split. The film-coated tablets cannot be split accurately as there is no break line. To ensure the patient receives the entire dose the tablets should be swallowed whole without chewing or crushing.
The oral suspension should be shaken vigorously for at least 5 seconds before every administration. The press in-bottle adapter (PIBA) which is supplied in the product carton should be inserted firmly into the neck of the bottle before use and remain in place for the duration of the usage of the bottle. The oral syringe should be inserted into the PIBA and the dose withdrawn from the inverted bottle. The provided adaptor and graduated oral dosing syringe should be used to administer the oral suspension. A household teaspoon or tablespoon is not an adequate measuring device. The cap should be replaced after each use. The cap fits properly when the PIBA is in place.
Discard any unused Fycompa oral suspension remaining 90 days after first opening the bottle.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients (see Section 6.1 List of Excipients).

4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

Suicidal ideation and behaviour.

Antiepileptic drugs (AED), including Fycompa, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviour in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behaviour, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behaviour.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomised to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behaviour compared to patients randomised to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behaviour or ideation among 27,863 AED-treatment patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behaviour for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in the placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviour with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviour beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviour was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyses. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analysed. Table 2 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.
The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behaviour was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other indications, but the absolute risk differences were similar for epilepsy and psychiatric conditions.
Anyone considering prescribing Fycompa or any other AED must balance the risk with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Should suicidal thoughts and behaviour emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviour and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behaviour, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behaviour, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviours of concern should be reported immediately to the treating doctor.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/multiorgan hypersensitivity.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), also known as multiorgan hypersensitivity, has been reported in patients taking antiepileptic drugs, including Fycompa. DRESS may be fatal or life-threatening. If signs or symptoms of DRESS are present, the patient should be evaluated immediately and Fycompa should be discontinued if an alternative aetiology for the signs or symptoms cannot be established.

Nervous system disorders.

Dizziness and gait disturbance.

Fycompa caused dose-related increases in events related to dizziness and disturbance in gait or coordination (see Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)). In the controlled phase 3 epilepsy clinical trials, dizziness and vertigo were reported in 35% and 47% of patients randomised to receive Fycompa at doses of 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, compared to 10% of placebo-treated patients. The gait disturbance related events (including ataxia, gait disturbance, balance disorder, and coordination abnormal) were reported in 12% and 16% of patients randomised to receive Fycompa at doses of 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, compared to 2% of placebo-treated patients.
These adverse reactions occurred mostly during the titration phase and led to discontinuation in 3% of Fycompa-treated subjects compared to 1% of placebo-treated patients. Elderly patients had an increased risk of these adverse reactions compared to younger adults and adolescents.

Somnolence and fatigue.

Fycompa caused dose-dependent increases in somnolence and fatigue-related events (including fatigue, asthenia, and lethargy).
In the controlled phase 3 epilepsy clinical trials, 16% and 18% of patients randomised to receive Fycompa at doses of 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, reported somnolence compared to 7% of placebo patients. In the controlled phase 3 epilepsy clinical trials, 12% and 15% of patients randomised to receive Fycompa at doses of 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, reported fatigue-related events compared to 5% of placebo patients. Somnolence or fatigue-related events led to discontinuation in 2% of Fycompa-treated patients and 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. Elderly patients had an increased risk of these adverse reactions compared to younger adults and adolescents.

Falls.

An increased risk of falls, in some cases leading to serious injuries including head injuries and bone fracture, occurred in patients being treated with Fycompa (with and without concurrent seizures). In the controlled phase 3 epilepsy clinical trials, falls were reported in 5% and 10% of patients randomised to receive Fycompa at doses of 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, compared to 3% of placebo-treated patients. Falls were reported as serious and led to discontinuation more frequently in Fycompa-treated patients than placebo-treated patients.
Twenty patients aged 65 and over years received perampanel in the double blind phase 3 epilepsy studies, Dizziness and falls were particularly frequent in these patients. Dizziness occurred in 55.6% of elderly patients given the 8 mg dose and 42.9% given the 12 mg dose. Falls occurred in 11.1% of elderly patients given the 8 mg dose and 57.1% given the 12 mg dose. Fycompa should be used with caution in the elderly.

End of treatment.

It is recommended that discontinuation be undertaken gradually to minimise the potential for rebound seizures (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration). However, due to its long half-life and subsequent slow decline in plasma concentrations, Fycompa can be discontinued abruptly if absolutely needed.

Serious psychiatric and behavioural reactions.

Serious or life-threatening psychiatric and behavioural adverse reactions including aggression, hostility, irritability, anger, and homicidal ideation and threats have been reported in patients taking Fycompa. Aggression was observed more frequently in adolescents than adults. Monitor patients for these reactions as well as for changes in mood, behaviour, or personality that are not typical for the patient, particularly during the titration period and at higher doses. Fycompa should be reduced if these symptoms occur and should be discontinued immediately if symptoms are severe or are worsening.
In controlled phase 3 epilepsy clinical trials, hostility and aggression related adverse reactions occurred in 12% and 20% of patients randomised to receive Fycompa at doses of 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, compared to 6% of patients in the placebo group. These effects were dose related and generally appeared within the first 6 weeks of treatment although new events continued to be observed through more than 37 weeks. Fycompa-treated patients experienced more hostility and aggression related adverse reactions that were serious, severe, and led to dose reduction, interruption, and discontinuation more frequently than placebo-treated patients.
In general, in the placebo-controlled phase 3 epilepsy trials, neuropsychiatric events were reported more frequently in patients being treated with Fycompa than in patients taking placebo. These events included irritability, aggression, anger and anxiety which occurred in 2% or greater of Fycompa treated patients and twice as frequently as in placebo-treated patients. Other symptoms that were observed with Fycompa treatment and more common than with placebo, included belligerence, affect lability, agitation, and physical assault. Some of these events were reported as serious and life-threatening, Homicidal ideation and/or threat were exhibited in 0.1% of 4,368 Fycompa treated patients in controlled and open label studies, including non-epilepsy studies.
In the phase 3 epilepsy trials these events occurred in patients with and without prior psychiatric history, prior aggressive behaviour, or concomitant use of medications associated with hostility and aggression. Some patients experienced worsening of their pre-existing psychiatric conditions. Patients with active psychotic disorders and unstable recurrent affective disorders were excluded from the clinical trials. The combination of alcohol and Fycompa significantly worsened mood and increased anger. Patients taking Fycompa should avoid the use of alcohol.
In healthy volunteers taking Fycompa, observed psychiatric events included paranoia, euphoric mood, agitation, anger, mental status changes and disorientation confusional state.
In the non-epilepsy trials, psychiatric events that occurred in Fycompa-treated subjects more often than placebo-treated subjects included disorientation, delusion and paranoia.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that Fycompa may increase the risk of psychiatric events. Patients should be monitored during treatment and for at least one month after the last dose of Fycompa, and especially when taking higher doses and during the initial few weeks of drug therapy (titration period), or at others times of dose increases. The dose of Fycompa should be reduced if these symptoms occur. Permanently discontinue Fycompa for persistent severe or worsening psychiatric symptoms or behaviours and refer for psychiatric evaluation.

Abuse potential.

Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of substance abuse and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of Fycompa abuse.
In a clinical trial of 40 volunteers with a history of polydrug use supra-therapeutic doses of Fycompa (24 mg and 36 mg) produced responses for "Euphoria" that were similar to alprazolam 3 mg, and lower than ketamine 100 mg. The incidence of euphoria reported as an adverse event in this study following Fycompa administration 8 mg, 24 mg and 36 mg was 37%, 46%, 46%, respectively, which was higher than alprazolam 3 mg (13%) but lower than ketamine 100 mg (89%).
"Drug Liking", "Overall Drug Liking", and "Take Drug Again" for Fycompa were each statistically lower than for ketamine 100 mg. In addition, for "Bad Drug Effects", Fycompa 24 mg and 36 mg produced responses significantly higher than ketamine 100 mg. For "Sedation", Fycompa 24 and 36 mg produced responses similar to alprazolam 3 mg and higher than ketamine 100 mg. On the "Take Drug Again" scale all doses of Fycompa produced lower scores than 1.5 mg and 3 mg alprazolam, and most of the differences were statistically significant.
The potential for Fycompa to produce withdrawal symptoms has not been adequately evaluated.

Monotherapy.

Fycompa has not been assessed as monotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Monotherapy is not recommended.

Hepatotoxicity.

Cases of hepatotoxicity (mainly hepatic enzyme increased) with Fycompa in combination with other antiepileptic drugs have been reported. If hepatic enzymes elevation is observed, monitoring of liver function should be considered.

Galactose intolerance.

Fycompa film-coated tablets contains lactose, therefore patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take Fycompa film-coated tablets.

Sorbitol.

Fycompa oral suspension contains sorbitol; therefore patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take Fycompa oral suspension.
Caution should be exercised when combining Fycompa oral suspension with other antiepileptic medications containing sorbitol, since a combined intake of over 1 gram of sorbitol may affect absorption of some drugs.

Use in hepatic impairment.

See Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration, Patients with hepatic impairment; Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties, Special populations, Hepatic impairment.

Use in renal impairment.

See Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration, Renal impairment; Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties, Special populations, Renal impairment.

Effect on laboratory tests.

No data available.

Use in the elderly.

Twenty patients aged 65 and over received perampanel in the double blind phase 3 epilepsy studies. Dizziness and falls were particularly frequent in these patients and the incidence of falls was increased in elderly patients taking perampanel (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use, Falls). Dizziness occurred in 55.6% of elderly patients given the 8 mg dose and falls occurred in 57.1% given the 12 mg dose. Fycompa should be used with caution in the elderly (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration; Section 4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects), Other special populations).

Paediatric use.

The safety and efficacy of Fycompa in children below 4 years of age with POS and 7 years of age with PGTCS have not been established yet. Fycompa is not recommended for use in children aged less than 4 years of age.

4.5 Interactions with Other Medicines and Other Forms of Interactions

Fycompa is not considered as a strong inducer or inhibitor of cytochrome P450 or UGT enzymes (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties).

Drug interaction studies.

In vitro assessment of drug interactions.

Drug metabolising enzyme.

In human liver microsomes, perampanel (30 micromol/L) had a weak inhibitory effect on CYP2C8 and UGT1A9 among major hepatic CYPs and UGTs.
Compared with positive controls (including phenobarbital, rifampicin), perampanel was found to weakly induce only CYP3A4/5 (≥ 3 micromol/L) and CYP2B6 (30 micromol/L) among major hepatic CYPs and UGTs in cultured human hepatocytes.

Transporters.

Perampanel was not a substrate or significant inhibitor of several influx or efflux transporters in vitro (organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3; organic anion transporters 1, 2, 3 and 4; organic cation transporters 1, 2 and 3; efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein).

Oral contraceptives.

In healthy women receiving 12 mg (but not 4 or 8 mg/day) for 21 days concomitantly with a combined oral contraceptive, Fycompa was shown to decrease the levonorgestrel exposure (mean Cmax and AUC values were each decreased by 40%). Ethinyloestradiol AUC was not affected by Fycompa 12 mg whereas Cmax was decreased by 18%. Therefore, the possibility of decreased efficacy of progestative containing oral contraceptives should be considered for women needing Fycompa 12 mg/day and an additional reliable non-hormonal method (for example intra-uterine device (IUD), condom) form of contraceptive is to be used (see Section 4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation, Use in pregnancy).

Interactions between Fycompa and other anti-epileptic medicinal products.

Potential interactions between Fycompa and other anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) were assessed in clinical studies. A population PK analysis of three pooled phase 3 studies in adolescent and adult patients with partial-onset seizures evaluated the effect of Fycompa (up to 12 mg once daily) on the PK of other AEDs. In another population PK analysis of pooled data from twenty phase 1 studies in healthy subjects, with Fycompa up to 36 mg, and one phase 2 and six phase 3 studies in paediatric, adolescent and adult patients with partial-onset seizures or primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures, with Fycompa up to 16 mg once daily, evaluated the effect of concomitant AEDs of perampanel clearance. The effect of these interactions on average steady state concentration is summarised in Table 3.
Based on the results from the population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with partial onset seizures and patients with primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures, the total clearance of Fycompa was increased when co-administered with carbamazepine (3-fold), and phenytoin or oxcarbazepine (2-fold), which are known inducers of enzymes of metabolism (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties). This effect should be taken into account and managed when adding or withdrawing these AEDs from a patient's treatment regimen. Clonazepam, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, topiramate, zonisamide, clobazam, lamotrigine and valproic acid did not affect to a clinically relevant manner the clearance of Fycompa.
In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with partial-onset seizures, Fycompa did not affect to a clinically relevant manner the clearance of clonazepam, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, zonisamide, carbamazepine, clobazam, lamotrigine and valproic acid, at the highest Fycompa dose evaluated (12 mg/day).
Fycompa was found to decrease the clearance of oxcarbazepine by 26%. Oxcarbazepine is rapidly metabolised by cytosolic reductase enzyme to the active metabolite, monohydroxycarbazepine. The effect of Fycompa on monohydroxycarbazepine concentrations is not known.
Fycompa is dosed to clinical effect regardless of other AEDs (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).

Effect of perampanel on CYP3A substrates.

Concomitant CYP3A inducing AEDs.

Partial-onset seizures.

Response rates after addition of perampanel at fixed doses were less when patients received concomitant CYP3A enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic medicinal products (carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine) as compared to response rates in patient who received concomitant non-enzyme inducing AEDs (see Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties, Clinical trials). Patients' response should be monitored when they are switching from concomitant non-inducer anti-epileptic medicinal products to enzyme inducing medicinal products and vice versa. Depending upon individual clinical response and tolerability, the dose may be increased or decreased 2 mg at a time (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).

Primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures.

Response rates after addition of perampanel at a fixed dose of 8 mg were less when patients received concomitant CYP3A enzyme-inducing AEDs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine) as compared to response rates in patients who received concomitant non-enzyme inducing AEDs (see Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties, Clinical trials). Patients' response should be monitored when they are switching from concomitant non-inducer AEDs to enzyme-inducing AEDs, and vice versa. Depending upon individual clinical response and tolerability, the dose may be increased by increments of 2 mg up to 12 mg/day.

Effect of cytochrome P450 inducing or inhibiting medicinal products on perampanel pharmacokinetics.

Patients should be closely monitored for tolerability and clinical response when adding or removing cytochrome P450 inducers or inhibitors, since perampanel plasma levels can be decreased or increased; the dose of Fycompa may need to be adjusted accordingly.

Effect of cytochrome P450 inducers on perampanel pharmacokinetics.

Strong inducers of cytochrome P450, such as rifampicin and hypericum, are expected to decrease perampanel concentrations. Felbamate has been shown to decrease the concentrations of some drugs and may also reduce perampanel concentrations.

Effect of cytochrome P450 inhibitors on perampanel pharmacokinetics.

In healthy subjects, the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole (400 mg once daily for 10 days) increased perampanel AUC by 20% and prolonged perampanel half-life by 15% (67.8 h vs 58.4 h). Larger effects cannot be excluded when Fycompa is combined with a CYP3A inhibitor with longer half-life than ketoconazole or when the inhibitor is given for a longer treatment duration. Strong inhibitors of other cytochrome P450 isoforms could potentially also increase perampanel concentrations.

Levodopa.

In healthy subjects, Fycompa (4 mg once daily for 19 days) had no effect on Cmax or AUC of levodopa.

Alcohol.

The effects of perampanel on tasks involving alertness and vigilance such as driving ability were additive or supra-additive to the effects of alcohol itself, as found in a pharmacodynamic interaction study in healthy subjects. Multiple dosing of perampanel 12 mg/day increased levels of anger, confusion, and depression as assessed using the profile of mood state 5-point rating scale (see Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties). These effects may also be seen when Fycompa is used in combination with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants.
Interaction studies have only been performed in adults. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of the adolescent patients in the phase 3 clinical studies, there were no notable differences between this population and the overall population.

Paediatric population.

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of the adolescent patients age ≥ 12 years and children age 4 to < 12 years, there were no notable differences compared to the adult population.

4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Effects on fertility.

There were no clear effects on fertility or early embryonic development in male or female rats treated with perampanel at oral doses of 1, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day (0.8, 8 and 23 times respectively the MRHD of 12 mg/day based on body surface area). Prolonged and/or irregular estrous cycles were observed at all doses but particularly at the high dose. The effect of Fycompa on human fertility has not been established.
(Category B3)
Fycompa is not recommended during pregnancy. There are limited amounts of data (less than 300 pregnancy outcomes) from the use of Fycompa in pregnant women.
Perampanel and/or its metabolites cross the placenta in rats. Oral administration of perampanel to pregnant rats throughout organogenesis at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day was associated with a dose-related increase in diverticulum of the intestine; a no effect dose was not established. These doses are 0.8, 2 and 8 times respectively the MRHD of 12 mg/day based on body surface area.
There were no effects on embryofetal development following oral administration of perampanel to pregnant rabbits throughout organogenesis at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day (1.4, 4 and 14 times respectively the MRHD of 12 mg/day based on body surface area). Exposure (plasma AUC) at all doses was less than anticipated clinical exposure.
Oral administration of perampanel to rats from early gestation to weaning at doses of 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day (0.8, 2 and 8 times the MRHD of 12 mg/day based on body surface area) was associated with increased stillbirths and abnormal delivery and nursing behaviour at the mid- and high-doses; the no-effect dose was 1 mg/kg/day. Behavioural development and reproductive function of the offspring were not affected.

Women of childbearing potential.

Fycompa is not recommended in women of childbearing potential not using contraception unless clearly necessary.
Studies in lactating rats have shown excretion of perampanel and/or its metabolites in milk. The excretion into breast milk was measured in rats at 10 days post-partum. Levels peaked at one hour and were about 4 times the levels in plasma. Studies in rats with perampanel administration from early gestation to weaning have shown adverse effects (see Section 4.6 Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation, Use in pregnancy).
It is not known whether perampanel is excreted in human milk. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breastfeeding or to discontinue/abstain from Fycompa therapy taking into account the benefit of breastfeeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

4.7 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

Fycompa has moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Fycompa may cause dizziness and somnolence and therefore may influence the ability to drive or use machines. Patients are advised not to drive a vehicle, operate complex machinery or engage in other potentially hazardous activities until it is known whether Fycompa affects their ability to perform these tasks.

4.8 Adverse Effects (Undesirable Effects)

Clinical trials.

Partial-onset seizures in adults and adolescents.

A total of 1,038 in adult and adolescent patients on perampanel (2, 4, 8, or 12 mg once daily) constituted the safety population in the pooled analysis of phase 3 placebo controlled studies in patients with partial-onset seizures. Approximately 51% of patients were female and the mean age was 35 years.

Adverse reactions leading to discontinuation.

In controlled phase 3 clinical trials the rate of discontinuation as a result of an adverse reaction was 3%, 8% and 19% in patients randomised to receive Fycompa at the recommended doses of 4 mg, 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, and 5% in patients randomised to receive placebo. The adverse events most commonly leading to discontinuation (≥ 1% in the 8 mg or 12 mg Fycompa group and greater than placebo) were dizziness, somnolence, vertigo, aggression, anger, ataxia, blurred vision, irritability, and dysarthria.

Most common adverse reactions.

Table 4 gives the incidence in the phase 3 controlled trials of the adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 2% of patients with partial-onset seizures in any Fycompa dose group. Overall, the most frequently reported dose-related adverse reactions in patients receiving Fycompa at doses of 8 mg or 12 mg (≥ 4% and occurring at least 1% higher than the placebo group) included dizziness (36%), somnolence (16%), fatigue (10%), irritability (9%), falls (7%), nausea (7%), ataxia (5%), balance disorder (4%), gait disturbance (4%), vertigo (4%), and weight gain (4%). For almost every adverse reaction, rates were higher on 12 mg and more often led to dose reduction or discontinuation.

Weight gain.

Body weight of subjects was recorded during vital signs monitoring at various time points during the conduct of phase 3 studies. In controlled clinical trials in patients with partial onset seizures clinically significant weight gain (i.e. > 7% BW) occurred in 14%, 15.3% and 15.4% of patients given perampanel 4 mg, 8 mg and 12 mg respectively compared to 7.1% given placebo.
Across the entire perampanel treatment duration in the open label extension study for partial onset seizures, based on body weight measurements, 43.9% of subjects had an increase in body weight of > 7%, and 15.3% had a decrease in body weight of > 7%. The mean change from baseline in body weight at the end of treatment was 2.54 kg. The mean duration of perampanel exposure was 115.41 weeks.
In subjects with primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures who completed the controlled clinical trial and subsequently entered the open label extension phase, based on body weight measurements, 27.9% had a clinically notable increase (> 7%) in body weight across the entire perampanel treatment duration. The mean duration of perampanel exposure was 40.3 weeks.

Other adverse reactions.

The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in the precautions section of the prescribing information: psychiatric reactions including aggression; suicidal ideation and behaviour; abuse potential; dizziness and gait disturbance; falls; somnolence and fatigue.

Primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures in adults and adolescents.

A total of 81 adult and adolescent patients on perampanel constituted the safety population in the phase 3 placebo-controlled trial in patients with primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Approximately 57% of patients were female, and the mean age was 27 years.
In the controlled phase 3 primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures clinical trial, the adverse event profile was similar to that noted for the controlled phase 3 partial-onset seizures trials.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions in patients receiving Fycompa (≥ 10% and higher than in the placebo group) included dizziness (32.1%), fatigue (14.8%), headache (12.3%), somnolence (11.1%), and irritability (11.1%). The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation (≥ 2% in the Fycompa group and greater than placebo) were vomiting and dizziness.

Paediatric population.

Based on the clinical trial database of 196 adolescents exposed to Fycompa from double-blind studies for POS and PGTCS, the frequency, type and severity of adverse reactions in adolescents are expected to be the same as in adults, except for aggression, which was observed more frequently in adolescents than in adults.
Based on the clinical trial database of 180 children (4 to < 12 years) with POS and PGTCS, exposed to perampanel from a multicentre open label study, the overall safety profile in children were similar to that of adolescents and adults, except for somnolence (26.1%, 14.8% adolescents and 14.2% adults), irritability (12.8%, 6.6% adolescents, and 7.4% adults), aggression (8.9%, 7.7% adolescents, 1.0% adults), and agitation (4.4%, 0.5% adolescents and 0.4% adults) which were observed more frequently in children than in adolescents and adults. Table 5 provides a summary of the adverse events observed in the core study occurring in more than 10% of the subjects.
TEAEs leading to dose reduction were observed in 40.6% of children. Common TEAEs leading to dose reduction in children included somnolence (13.3%), dizziness (5.6%), irritability (4.4%), and aggression (4.4%). TEAEs leading to discontinuation were observed in 9.4% of children. Reasons for discontinuation occurring in more than one subject were irritability (1.7%), aggression (1.7%), seizure (1.1%), and balance disorder (1.1%).
In the core and extension phase of this study, 76.7% of subjects received Fycompa for more than 24 weeks and 33.9% of subjects received Fycompa for more than 52 weeks.
Available data in children from multiple open label uncontrolled studies did not suggest any clinically significant effects of perampanel on growth and development parameters including body weight, height, thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF 1) level, cognition (as assessed by Aldenkamp-Baker neuropsychological assessment schedule [ABNAS]), behaviour (as assessed by Child Behaviour Checklist [CBCL]), and dexterity (as assessed by Lafayette Grooved Pegboard Test [LGPT]) were evaluated by open label uncontrolled studies. The long term effects (greater than 1 year) on cognition, growth and development in children remain unknown.

Post-marketing experience.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Fycompa. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.

4.9 Overdose

For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poison Information Centre on 13 11 26 (Australia).
There is limited clinical experience with perampanel overdose in humans. In a report of an intentional overdose that could have resulted in a dose up to 264 mg, the patient experienced events of altered mental status, agitation and aggressive behaviour and recovered without sequelae. There is no available specific antidote to the effects of perampanel. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. In view of its long half-life, the effects caused by perampanel could be prolonged. Because of low renal clearance special interventions such as forced diuresis, dialysis or haemoperfusion are unlikely to be of value.

5 Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Mechanism of action.

Perampanel is a first in class selective, non-competitive antagonist of the ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor on post-synaptic neurons. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and is implicated in a number of neurological disorders caused by neuronal overexcitation. Several perampanel metabolites are also AMPA antagonists, although weaker than the parent compound. In vitro, perampanel inhibited AMPA-induced (but not NMDA-induced) increase in intracellular calcium in rat cortical neurons. In vivo, perampanel displayed anticonvulsant activity in several animal models.
The precise mechanism by which perampanel exerts its antiepileptic effects in humans remains to be fully elucidated.

Pharmacodynamic effects.

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (efficacy) analyses have shown that within the recommended dose range there is a positive correlation between serum levels of Fycompa and seizure frequency for partial-onset seizures and primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures.

Psychomotor performance.

Single and multiple doses of 8 mg and 12 mg impaired psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers in a dose-related manner. The effects of perampanel on complex tasks such as driving ability were additive or supra-additive to the impairment effects of alcohol. Psychomotor performance testing returned to baseline within 2 weeks of cessation of perampanel dosing.

Cognitive function.

In a healthy volunteer study to assess the effects of perampanel on alertness, and memory using a standard battery of assessments, no effects of perampanel were found following single and multiple doses of perampanel up to 12 mg/day.
In an open label uncontrolled study conducted in paediatric patients, no clinically important changes in cognition relative to baseline as measured by ABNAS were observed following adjunctive perampanel therapy (see Section 5.1, Paediatric population). Long-term cognitive effects of perampanel in children are unknown.

Cardiac electrophysiology.

Perampanel did not prolong the QTc interval when administered in daily doses up to 12 mg/day, and did not have a dose related or clinically important effect on QRS duration.

Clinical trials.

Partial-onset seizures in adults and adolescents.

The efficacy of Fycompa in partial-onset seizures in adults and adolescents was established in three adjunctive therapy 19 week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials in adult and adolescent patients. Subjects had partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalisation and were not adequately controlled with one to three concomitant AEDs. During a 6-week baseline period, subjects were required to have more than five seizures with no seizure-free period exceeding 25 days. In these three trials, subjects had a mean duration of epilepsy of approximately 21.06 years. Between 85.3% and 89.1% of patients were taking two to three concomitant AEDs with or without concurrent vagal nerve stimulation.
Two studies (studies 304 and 305) compared doses of Fycompa 8 and 12 mg/day with placebo and the third study (study 306) compared doses of Fycompa 2, 4 and 8 mg/day with placebo. In all three trials, following a 6-week baseline phase to establish baseline seizure frequency prior to randomisation, subjects were randomised and titrated to the randomised dose. During the titration phase in all three trials, treatment was initiated at 2 mg/day and increased in weekly increments of 2 mg/day to the target dose. Subjects experiencing intolerable adverse events could remain on the same dose or have their dose decreased to the previously tolerated dose. In all three trials, the titration phase was followed by a maintenance phase that lasted 13 weeks, during which patients were to remain on a stable dose of Fycompa.
The pooled 50% responder rates were placebo 19%, 4 mg 29%, 8 mg 35% and 12 mg 35%. A statistically significant effect on the reduction in 28 day seizure frequency (baseline to treatment phase) as compared to the placebo group was observed with Fycompa treatment at doses of 4 mg/day (study 306), 8 mg/day (studies 304, 305 and 306), and 12 mg/day (studies 304 and 305). The 50% responder rates in the 4 mg, 8 mg and 12 mg groups were respectively 23.0%, 31.5%, and 30.0% in combination with enzyme inducing anti-epileptic medicinal products and were 33.3%, 46.5% and 50.0% when Fycompa was given in combination with non-enzyme inducing anti-epileptic medicinal products. These studies show that once-daily administration of Fycompa at doses of 4 mg to 12 mg was significantly more efficacious than placebo as adjunctive treatment in this population. See Table 6.
Therefore the number needed to treat (NNT) with any dose of Fycompa for 4 mg to 12 mg to achieve a 50% reduction in seizure frequency was 6.25 to 10.9.
Data from placebo-controlled studies demonstrate that improvement in seizure control is observed with a once-daily Fycompa dose of 4 mg and this benefit is enhanced as the dose is increased to 8 mg/day. No efficacy benefit was observed at the dose of 12 mg as compared to the dose of 8 mg in the overall population. Benefit at the dose of 12 mg was observed in some patients who tolerate the dose of 8 mg and when the clinical response to that dose was insufficient. A clinically meaningful reduction in seizure frequency relative to placebo was achieved as early as the second week of dosing when patients reached a daily dose of 4 mg.

Open label extension study for partial onset seizures in adults and adolescents.

Ninety-seven percent of the patients who completed the randomised trials were enrolled in the open label extension study (n = 1186). Patients from the randomised trial were converted to perampanel over 16 weeks followed by a long-term maintenance period (≥ 1 year). The mean average daily dose was 10.05 mg.

Elderly patients in clinical trials for partial onset seizures.

In these studies, 31 patients aged 65 and over received perampanel. Due to high rates of dizziness and falls in these patients, Fycompa should be used with caution in the elderly.

Primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures in adults and adolescents.

Fycompa as adjunctive therapy in patients 12 years of age and older with idiopathic generalised epilepsy experiencing primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures was established in a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (study 332). Eligible patients on a stable dose of 1 to 3 AEDs experiencing at least 3 primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures during the 8-week baseline period were randomised to either Fycompa or placebo. The population included 164 patients (Fycompa N = 82, placebo N = 82). Patients were titrated over four weeks to a target dose of 8 mg per day or the highest tolerated dose and treated for an additional 13 weeks on the last dose level achieved at the end of the titration period. The total treatment period was 17 weeks. Study drug was given once per day.
The primary endpoint was the percent change from baseline in primary generalised tonic-clonic seizure frequency per 28 days during the treatment period (titration + maintenance) as compared to the baseline period. The median percent change in primary generalised tonic-clonic seizure frequency per 28 days during the titration and maintenance periods (combined) relative to prerandomization was greater with Fycompa (-76.5%) than with placebo (-38.4%), P < 0.0001. The 50% primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures responder rate during the maintenance period was significantly higher in the Fycompa group (64.2%) than in the placebo group (39.5%), P = 0.0019. The 50% responder rates were 58.0% for the Fycompa group and 35.8% for the placebo group (P = 0.0059) when discontinued patients were considered non-responders. The 50% responder rate was 22.2% when Fycompa was used in combination with enzyme inducing anti-epileptic medicinal products and 69.4% when Fycompa was given in combination with non-enzyme inducing anti-epileptic medicinal products. The number of Fycompa subjects taking enzyme inducing anti-epileptic medicinal products was small (n = 9).
During the 3 month maintenance period, 30.9% of the patients on Fycompa in the clinical studies became free of PGTC seizures compared with 12.3% on placebo. Freedom from all seizures was achieved in 23.5% of patients on Fycompa compared to 4.9% of patients on placebo. There are no data regarding the effects of withdrawal of concomitant anti-epileptic medicinal products to achieve monotherapy with Fycompa. The efficacy of Fycompa in the treatment of absence and myoclonic seizures has not been demonstrated.

Paediatric population.

The three pivotal double-blind placebo-controlled phase 3 studies included 143 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. The results in these adolescents were similar to those seen in the adult population.
Study 332 included 22 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. The results in these adolescents were similar to those seen in the adult population.
The efficacy of perampanel in children down to the age of 4 years for POS and 7 years for PGTCS has been extrapolated from data of adolescents and adults with POS or PGTCS. A similar clinical response is expected in these patients based on the paediatric posology (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration) established to achieve plasma concentrations in the range observed in adolescents and adults taking efficacious doses (see Section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties). Data supporting the extrapolation principle and the safety of perampanel adjunctive therapy in children (aged 4 to < 12 years old) have been evaluated in an open-label, uncontrolled study (study 311). A total of 180 paediatric patients (aged 4 to < 12 years old) with inadequately controlled partial-onset seizures or primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Patients were titrated over 11 weeks to a target dose of 8 mg/day or the maximum tolerated dose (not to exceed 12 mg/day) for patients not taking concomitant CYP3A-inducing antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine and phenytoin) or 12 mg/day or the maximum tolerated dose (not to exceed 16 mg/day) for patients taking a concomitant CYP3A-inducing antiepileptic drug. Perampanel dose achieved at the end of titration was maintained for 12 weeks (for a total of 23 weeks of exposure) at the completion of the core study. Patients who entered into extension phase were treated for an additional 29 weeks for a total exposure duration of 52 weeks. The approved dose for children weighing < 30 kg is lower than the dose used in this study. Efficacy results observed in the core and extension phase of the study are presented in Table 7. Overall, the treatment effects on the median reduction in seizure frequency, 50% responder rate, and seizure-free rate were sustained following 52 weeks of perampanel treatment.
Following 23 weeks of perampanel treatment, 42.6% of patients with partial-onset seizures, 43.7% in the subset of partial-onset seizure patients with secondarily generalized seizures, 34.8% of patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and 35.3% in the subset of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) patients were very much improved or much improved compared to baseline, as assessed by Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC). The treatment effects on the CGIC observed above were sustained following 52 weeks of perampanel treatment.
There is limited long term safety data in children below 12 years of age. The safety and efficacy of Fycompa in children below 4 years of age have not been established yet.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

The pharmacokinetics of perampanel have been studied in healthy adult subjects (age range 18 to 79), subjects with hepatic impairment and adults, adolescents, and paediatric patients with partial-onset seizures and primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures.

Absorption.

Perampanel is around 100% bioavailable. Median Tmax range from 0.5 to 2.5 hours under fasted conditions.
Perampanel is readily absorbed after oral administration with no evidence of marked first pass metabolism. Food does not affect the extent of absorption, but slows the rate of absorption. When administered with food, peak plasma concentrations are reduced and delayed by 2 hours compared with dosing in a fasted state.
Fycompa oral suspension is bioequivalent on a mg per mg basis to Fycompa film-coated tablets under fasted conditions. When a single 12 mg dose of both formulations was administered with a high fat meal, Fycompa oral suspension achieves equivalent AUC0-inf and approximately 23 % lower Cmax and 2 hours delay in time to peak exposure (Tmax) compared to the film-coated tablet formulation. However, population pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that under simulated steady state exposure conditions, Cmax and AUC, of Fycompa oral suspension were bioequivalent to the film-coated tablet formulation under both fasted and fed conditions.
When coadministered with a high fat meal, Cmax and AUC0-inf of a single 12-mg dose of perampanel oral suspension were approximately 22% and 13%, respectively, lower compared to fasted conditions.

Distribution.

Data from in vitro studies indicate that perampanel is approximately 95% bound to plasma proteins.
In vitro studies show that perampanel is not a substrate or significant inhibitor of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1, 2, 3, and 4, organic cation transporters (OCT) 1, 2, and 3, and the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP).

Metabolism.

Perampanel is extensively metabolised via primary oxidation and sequential glucuronidation. Primary oxidative metabolism is mediated by CYP3A based on results of in vitro studies using recombinant human CYPs and human liver microsomes. However, the metabolism has not been completely elucidated and other pathways cannot be excluded.
Following administration of radiolabeled perampanel, only trace amounts of perampanel metabolites were observed in plasma.

Excretion.

Following administration of a radiolabeled perampanel dose to 8 healthy elderly subjects, 30% of recovered radioactivity was found in the urine and 70% in the faeces. In urine and faeces, recovered radioactivity was primarily composed of a mixture of oxidative and conjugated metabolites. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of pooled data from 19 phase 1 studies, the average t1/2 of perampanel was 105 hours. When dosed in combination with the strong CYP3A inducer carbamazepine, the average t1/2 was 25 hours.

Linearity/non-linearity.

In a population PK analysis on pooled data from twenty phase 1 studies in healthy subjects receiving perampanel between 0.2 and 36 mg either as single or multiple doses, one phase 2 and five phase 3 studies in patients with partial-onset seizure receiving perampanel between 2 and 16 mg/day and two phase 3 studies in patients with primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures receiving perampanel between 2 and 14 mg/day a linear relationship was found between dose and perampanel plasma concentrations. Dose linearity was demonstrated in the population PK analysis for doses between 0.2 and 36 mg.

Special populations.

Hepatic impairment.

The pharmacokinetics of perampanel following a single 1 mg dose were evaluated in 12 adults with mild and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A and B, respectively) compared with 12 healthy, demographically matched adults. The mean apparent clearance of unbound perampanel in mildly impaired subjects was 188 mL/min vs. 338 mL/min in matched controls, and in moderately impaired subjects was 120 mL/min vs. 392 mL/min in matched controls. The t1/2 was longer in mildly impaired (306 h vs. 125 h) and moderately impaired (295 h vs. 139 h) subjects compared to matched healthy subjects. Fycompa has not been studied in paediatric patients with hepatic impairment (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).

Renal impairment.

The pharmacokinetics of perampanel have not been formally evaluated in adults and children with renal impairment (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).
Perampanel is eliminated almost exclusively by metabolism followed by rapid excretion of metabolites; only trace amounts of perampanel metabolites are observed in plasma. In a population pharmacokinetics analysis of adults and adolescents, apparent clearance of perampanel was decreased by 27% in patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance 50-80 mL/min) compared to patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance > 80 mL/min), with corresponding 37% increase in AUC. Considering the substantial overlap in the exposure between normal and mildly impaired adult and adolescent patients, no dosage adjustment is necessary for adult or adolescent patients with mild renal impairment. Based on the pharmacokinetic properties of perampanel, no dosage adjustment is recommended for paediatric patients with mild renal impairment.
Fycompa has not been studied in adults and children with severe renal impairment and adults and children undergoing haemodialysis (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).

Gender.

In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with partial onset seizures receiving perampanel up to 12 mg/day and patients with primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures receiving perampanel up to 8 mg/day in placebo-controlled clinical trials, perampanel clearance in females (0.54 L/h) was 18% lower than in males (0.66 L/h).

Elderly (65 years of age and above).

Perampanel was given to 31 patients with epilepsy aged 65 years or older. While large differences in the pharmacokinetics of perampanel were not apparent, due to the adverse events experienced by these patients perampanel should be used with caution in the elderly.

Paediatric population.

In a population pharmacokinetic analysis on pooled data from children aged 4 to < 12 years, adolescent patients aged ≥ 12 years, and adults, perampanel clearance decreased with an reduction in body weight. Hence, dose adjustment for children aged 4 to < 12 years with a body weight < 30kg is necessary (see Section 4.2 Dose and Method of Administration).

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Carcinogenicity.

Perampanel was administered orally to mice (1, 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day) and rats (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day in males; 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day in females) for up to 104 weeks. There was no evidence of treatment-related tumours in either species. Estimated exposures (plasma AUC) to perampanel at the highest doses tested were less than anticipated clinical exposure at the MRHD of 12 mg/day.

Genotoxicity.

Perampanel was negative in the bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tk assays in vitro, and in the micronucleus test in rats in vivo.

Juvenile animal data.

Oral administration of perampanel to juvenile rats for 12 weeks from postnatal day 7 of life at doses of 1, 3 and 3/10/30 mg/kg/day (high-dose escalations after 4 and 8 weeks) was associated with CNS clinical signs and decreased hindlimb grip strength/foot splay (all doses), reduced growth and neurobehavioural impairment (mid/high doses), and delayed sexual maturation (high dose). A no-effect dose was not determined. Oral administration of perampanel to juvenile dogs for 33 weeks from postnatal day 42 of life at doses of 1, 5 and 5/10 mg/kg/day (high dose escalation after 2 weeks) was associated with CNS clinical signs at all dose. The CNS clinical signs were due to exaggerated pharmacologic effects of perampanel.

6 Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of Excipients

Film-coated tablets.

The film-coated tablets contain the excipients lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, povidone, magnesium stearate, purified talc, microcrystalline cellulose (6 mg, 8 mg, 10 mg and 12 mg only), macrogol 8000, titanium dioxide, iron oxide yellow (2 mg, 10 mg), iron oxide red (2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, and 8 mg only), iron oxide black (8 mg only) and indigo carmine aluminium lake (10 mg and 12 mg only).

Oral suspension.

The oral suspension contains sorbitol solution (70%) (crystallising), Avicel RC - 591 (PING: 4093), poloxamer, dimeticone 500, polysorbate 65, methylcellulose, silicon dioxide, PEG-40 stearate, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, purified water.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Incompatibilities were either not assessed or not identified as part of the registration of this medicine.

6.3 Shelf Life

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the packaging.

6.4 Special Precautions for Storage

Fycompa film coated tablets.

Store below 30°C.
Store in original container.

Fycompa oral suspension.

Store below 30°C. Do not freeze. Use within 90 days after the first opening of the bottle.

6.5 Nature and Contents of Container

Film-coated tablets.

Fycompa 2 mg film coated tablet is available in PVC/aluminium blisters of 7.
Fycompa 4 mg film coated tablet is available in PVC/aluminium blisters of 28.
Fycompa 6 mg film coated tablet is available in PVC/aluminium blisters of 28.
Fycompa 8 mg film coated tablet is available in PVC/aluminium blisters of 28.
Fycompa 10 mg film coated tablet is available in PVC/aluminium blisters of 28.
Fycompa 12 mg film coated tablet is available in PVC/aluminium blisters of 28.

Oral suspension.

Fycompa oral suspension is supplied in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle with a child-resistant (CR) polypropylene (PP) closure; each bottle contains 340 mL of suspension and is packaged in an outer cardboard carton.
Each carton contains one bottle, two 20 mL graduated oral dosing syringes and an LDPE press in bottle adapter (PIBA). The oral dosing syringes are graduated in 0.5 mL increments.

6.6 Special Precautions for Disposal

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of by taking to your local pharmacy.

6.7 Physicochemical Properties

Perampanel hemisesquihydrate is a crystalline solid and is obtained as a white to yellowish white powder. The pKa value of perampanel hemisesquihydrate is 3.24 and the partition coefficient is 2.86 at 25°C. Perampanel hemisesquihydrate is freely soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, sparingly soluble in acetonitrile and acetone, slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate, very slightly soluble in 1-octanol and diethyl ether and practically insoluble in heptane and water. In aqueous solutions, perampanel hemisesquihydrate is very slightly soluble in 0.1 M HCl at 37°C and practically insoluble in pH 2-11 Britton-Robinson buffers at 25°C, pH 4.5 USP acetate buffer and pH 7.5 USP phosphate buffer at 37°C.

Chemical structure.

The chemical name of perampanel hemisesquihydrate is 2-(2-oxo-1-phenyl-5-pyridin-2-yl-1, 2-dihydropyridin-3-yl) benzonitrile hydrate (4:3). It has a molecular weight of 362.9.
The empirical formula of perampanel hemisesquihydrate is C23H15N3O.3/4 H2O.
Perampanel hemisesquihydrate has the following structural formula:

CAS number.

CAS Number: 380917-97-5.

7 Medicine Schedule (Poisons Standard)

Schedule 4 - Prescription only medicine.

Summary Table of Changes