In both genders, a previous minimal trauma fracture is strongly associated with an increased risk of repeat fractures.5,12 Up until 80 years of age, a previous minimal trauma fracture is the strongest risk factor for hip fractures and non-hip fractures.13
In addition to previous minimal trauma fracture, other risk factors for osteoporosis include:5,12
- low BMD
- alcohol consumption
- low BMI (body mass index)
- physical inactivity
- inadequate dietary calcium intake and vitamin D levels.5,12
For a comprehensive list of risk factors see RACGP Clinical guideline for osteoporosis.
Up to 50% of osteoporosis in men can be attributed to an underlying or secondary cause, including predisposing medicines or conditions and lifestyle factors.11,12 The major causes of secondary osteoporosis in men are hypogonadism, long-term corticosteroid use and excessive alcohol consumption.11
Other risk factors that can increase the likelihood of osteoporosis in men include:5,11,12,14
- decreased testosterone and other sex hormone levels due to ageing
- androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer.
For more information on assessing patients for risk of osteoporosis, visit NPS MedicineWise Risk assessment in osteoporosis.