This page contains additional content for the article Pioglitazone (Actos) for type 2 diabetes mellitus, published in NPS RADAR, April 2008.


New York Heart Association grading of heart failure (NYHA)

Class I

No limitations. Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue fatigue, dyspnoea or palpitations (asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction).

Class II

Slight limitation of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity results in fatigue, palpitation, dyspnoea or angina pectoris (mild chronic heart failure).

Class III

Marked limitation of physical activity. Less than ordinary physical activity leads to symptoms (moderate chronic heart failure).

Class IV

Unable to carry on any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms of chronic heart failure present at rest (severe chronic heart failure).