Initial detection of probable CKD is achieved through targeted screening of individuals with specific risks via a Kidney Health Check.1 The components of a Kidney Health Check are discussed below.
The CKD risk factors that should prompt screening via a Kidney Health Check are often identifiable in the primary care setting (see Table 1). For example, 22% of Australian adults have CVD (including hypertension, heart disease, stroke or heart failure) and 5.4% have diabetes.8
For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples there are specific recommendations for screening based on age groups and CKD risk factors (see Table 2). Updated Caring for Australian and New Zealanders with Kidney Impairment (CARI) Guidelines are expected to be released later in 2022.
It is recommended by the RACGP to use the standard question: 'Are you of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?' to identify, record and report the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status of patients in general practice.
For non-Indigenous Australians, being aged ≥ 60 years places an individual at increased risk of developing CKD, but in the absence of other risk factors it is not a prompt to routinely do a Kidney Health Check.1
As part of routine care for non-Indigenous Australians aged 45–74 years, an assessment of absolute CVD risk, and for those aged ≥ 40 years, an assessment for type 2 diabetes, are also recommended.16